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Sample Code

C Protocol 1.0

C Bulk Read Protocol 1.0

Sample code

/*
* bulk_read.c
*
*  Created on: 2016. 5. 16.
*      Author: Leon Ryu Woon Jung
*/

//
// *********     Bulk Read Example      *********
//
//
// Available Dynamixel model on this example : MX or X series set to Protocol 1.0
// This example is designed for using two Dynamixel MX-28, and an USB2DYNAMIXEL.
// To use another Dynamixel model, such as X series, see their details in E-Manual(support.robotis.com) and edit below "#define"d variables yourself.
// Be sure that Dynamixel MX properties are already set as %% ID : 1 / Baudnum : 1 (Baudrate : 1000000)
//
#ifdef __linux__
#include <unistd.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <termios.h>
#elif defined(_WIN32) || defined(_WIN64)
#include <conio.h>
#endif

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include "dynamixel_sdk.h"                                   // Uses Dynamixel SDK library

// Control table address
#define ADDR_MX_TORQUE_ENABLE           24                  // Control table address is different in Dynamixel model
#define ADDR_MX_GOAL_POSITION           30
#define ADDR_MX_PRESENT_POSITION        36
#define ADDR_MX_MOVING                  46

// Data Byte Length
#define LEN_MX_GOAL_POSITION            2
#define LEN_MX_PRESENT_POSITION         2
#define LEN_MX_MOVING                   1

// Protocol version
#define PROTOCOL_VERSION                1.0                 // See which protocol version is used in the Dynamixel

// Default setting
#define DXL1_ID                         1                   // Dynamixel#1 ID: 1
#define DXL2_ID                         2                   // Dynamixel#2 ID: 2
#define BAUDRATE                        1000000
#define DEVICENAME                      "/dev/ttyUSB0"      // Check which port is being used on your controller
                                                            // ex) Windows: "COM1"   Linux: "/dev/ttyUSB0"

#define TORQUE_ENABLE                   1                   // Value for enabling the torque
#define TORQUE_DISABLE                  0                   // Value for disabling the torque
#define DXL_MINIMUM_POSITION_VALUE      100                 // Dynamixel will rotate between this value
#define DXL_MAXIMUM_POSITION_VALUE      4000                // and this value (note that the Dynamixel would not move when the position value is out of movable range. Check e-manual about the range of the Dynamixel you use.)
#define DXL_MOVING_STATUS_THRESHOLD     10                  // Dynamixel moving status threshold

#define ESC_ASCII_VALUE                 0x1b

int getch()
{
#ifdef __linux__
  struct termios oldt, newt;
  int ch;
  tcgetattr(STDIN_FILENO, &oldt);
  newt = oldt;
  newt.c_lflag &= ~(ICANON | ECHO);
  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &newt);
  ch = getchar();
  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &oldt);
  return ch;
#elif defined(_WIN32) || defined(_WIN64)
  return _getch();
#endif
}

int kbhit(void)
{
#ifdef __linux__
  struct termios oldt, newt;
  int ch;
  int oldf;

  tcgetattr(STDIN_FILENO, &oldt);
  newt = oldt;
  newt.c_lflag &= ~(ICANON | ECHO);
  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &newt);
  oldf = fcntl(STDIN_FILENO, F_GETFL, 0);
  fcntl(STDIN_FILENO, F_SETFL, oldf | O_NONBLOCK);

  ch = getchar();

  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &oldt);
  fcntl(STDIN_FILENO, F_SETFL, oldf);

  if (ch != EOF)
  {
    ungetc(ch, stdin);
    return 1;
  }

  return 0;
#elif defined(_WIN32) || defined(_WIN64)
  return _kbhit();
#endif
}

int main()
{
  // Initialize PortHandler Structs
  // Set the port path
  // Get methods and members of PortHandlerLinux or PortHandlerWindows
  int port_num = portHandler(DEVICENAME);

  // Initialize PacketHandler Structs
  packetHandler();

  // Initialize Groupbulkread Structs
  int group_num = groupBulkRead(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION);

  int index = 0;
  int dxl_comm_result = COMM_TX_FAIL;             // Communication result
  uint8_t dxl_addparam_result = False;               // AddParam result
  uint8_t dxl_getdata_result = False;                // GetParam result
  int dxl_goal_position[2] = { DXL_MINIMUM_POSITION_VALUE, DXL_MAXIMUM_POSITION_VALUE };         // Goal position

  uint8_t dxl_error = 0;                          // Dynamixel error
  uint16_t dxl1_present_position = 0;             // Present position
  uint8_t dxl2_moving = 0;                        // Dynamixel moving status

  // Open port
  if (openPort(port_num))
  {
    printf("Succeeded to open the port!\n");
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Failed to open the port!\n");
    printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
    getch();
    return 0;
  }

  // Set port baudrate
  if (setBaudRate(port_num, BAUDRATE))
  {
    printf("Succeeded to change the baudrate!\n");
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Failed to change the baudrate!\n");
    printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
    getch();
    return 0;
  }

  // Enable Dynamixel#1 Torque
  write1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL1_ID, ADDR_MX_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_ENABLE);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Dynamixel#%d has been successfully connected \n", DXL1_ID);
  }

  // Enable Dynamixel#2 Torque
  write1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL2_ID, ADDR_MX_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_ENABLE);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Dynamixel#%d has been successfully connected \n", DXL2_ID);
  }

  // Add parameter storage for Dynamixel#1 present position value
  dxl_addparam_result = groupBulkReadAddParam(group_num, DXL1_ID, ADDR_MX_PRESENT_POSITION, LEN_MX_PRESENT_POSITION);
  if (dxl_addparam_result != True)
  {
    fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkRead addparam failed", DXL1_ID);
    return 0;
  }

  // Add parameter storage for Dynamixel#2 present moving value
  dxl_addparam_result = groupBulkReadAddParam(group_num, DXL2_ID, ADDR_MX_MOVING, LEN_MX_MOVING);
  if (dxl_addparam_result != True)
  {
    fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkRead addparam failed", DXL2_ID);
    return 0;
  }

  while (1)
  {
    printf("Press any key to continue! (or press ESC to quit!)\n");
    if (getch() == ESC_ASCII_VALUE)
      break;

    // Write Dynamixel#1 goal position
    write2ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL1_ID, ADDR_MX_GOAL_POSITION, dxl_goal_position[index]);
    if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
    {
      printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
    }
    else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
    {
      printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
    }

    // Write Dynamixel#2 goal position
    write2ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL2_ID, ADDR_MX_GOAL_POSITION, dxl_goal_position[index]);
    if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
    {
      printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
    }
    else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
    {
      printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
    }

    do
    {
      // Bulkread present position and moving status
      groupBulkReadTxRxPacket(group_num);
      if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
        printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);

      dxl_getdata_result = groupBulkReadIsAvailable(group_num, DXL1_ID, ADDR_MX_PRESENT_POSITION, LEN_MX_PRESENT_POSITION);
      if (dxl_getdata_result != True)
      {
        fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkRead getdata failed", DXL1_ID);
        return 0;
      }

      dxl_getdata_result = groupBulkReadIsAvailable(group_num, DXL2_ID, ADDR_MX_MOVING, LEN_MX_MOVING);
      if (dxl_getdata_result != True)
      {
        fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkRead getdata failed", DXL2_ID);
        return 0;
      }

      // Get Dynamixel#1 present position value
      dxl1_present_position = groupBulkReadGetData(group_num, DXL1_ID, ADDR_MX_PRESENT_POSITION, LEN_MX_PRESENT_POSITION);

      // Get Dynamixel#2 moving status value
      dxl2_moving = groupBulkReadGetData(group_num, DXL2_ID, ADDR_MX_MOVING, LEN_MX_MOVING);

      printf("[ID:%03d] Present Position : %d \t [ID:%03d] Is Moving : %d\n", DXL1_ID, dxl1_present_position, DXL2_ID, dxl2_moving);

    } while (abs(dxl_goal_position[index] - dxl1_present_position) > DXL_MOVING_STATUS_THRESHOLD);

    // Change goal position
    if (index == 0)
    {
      index = 1;
    }
    else
    {
      index = 0;
    }
  }

  // Disable Dynamixel#1 Torque
  write1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL1_ID, ADDR_MX_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_DISABLE);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }

  // Disable Dynamixel#2 Torque
  write1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL2_ID, ADDR_MX_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_DISABLE);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }

  // Close port
  closePort(port_num);

  return 0;
}

Details

#ifdef __linux__
#include <unistd.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <termios.h>
#elif defined(_WIN32) || defined(_WIN64)
#include <conio.h>
#endif

This source includes above to get key input interruption while the example is running. Actual functions for getting the input is described in a little below.

#include <stdlib.h>

The function abs() is in the example code, and it needs stdlib.h to be included.

#include <stdio.h>

The example shows Dynamixel status in sequence by the function printf(). So here stdio.h is needed.

#include "dynamixel_sdk.h"                                   // Uses Dynamixel SDK library

All libraries of Dynamixel SDK are linked with the header file dynamixel_sdk.h.

// Control table address
#define ADDR_MX_TORQUE_ENABLE           24                  // Control table address is different in Dynamixel model
#define ADDR_MX_GOAL_POSITION           30
#define ADDR_MX_PRESENT_POSITION        36

// Data Byte Length
#define LEN_MX_GOAL_POSITION            2
#define LEN_MX_PRESENT_POSITION         2

Dynamixel series have their own control tables: Addresses and Byte Length in each items. To control one of the items, its address (and length if necessary) is required. Find your requirements in http://support.robotis.com/.

// Protocol version
#define PROTOCOL_VERSION                1.0                 // See which protocol version is used in the Dynamixel

Dynamixel uses either or both protocols: Protocol 1.0 and Protocol 2.0. Choose one of the Protocol which is appropriate in the Dynamixel.

// Default setting
#define DXL1_ID                         1                   // Dynamixel#1 ID: 1
#define DXL2_ID                         2                   // Dynamixel#2 ID: 2
#define BAUDRATE                        1000000
#define DEVICENAME1                     "/dev/ttyUSB0"      // Check which port is being used on your controller

#define TORQUE_ENABLE                   1                   // Value for enabling the torque
#define TORQUE_DISABLE                  0                   // Value for disabling the torque
#define DXL_MINIMUM_POSITION_VALUE      100                 // Dynamixel will rotate between this value
#define DXL_MAXIMUM_POSITION_VALUE      4000                // and this value (note that the Dynamixel would not move when the position value is out of movable range. Check e-manual about the range of the Dynamixel you use.)
#define DXL_MOVING_STATUS_THRESHOLD     10                  // Dynamixel moving status threshold

#define ESC_ASCII_VALUE                 0x1b

Here we set some variables to let you freely change them and use them to run the example code.

As the document previously said in previous chapter, customize Dynamixel control table items, such as DXL_ID number, communication BAUDRATE, and the DEVICENAME, on your own terms of needs. In particular, BAUDRATE and DEVICENAME have systematical dependencies on your controller, so make clear what kind of communication method you will use.

The example uses two Dynamixels DXL1_ID, DXL2_ID connected with the port DEVICENAME.

Dynamixel basically needs the TORQUE_ENABLE to be rotating or give you its internal information. On the other hand, it doesn’t need torque enabled if you get your goal, so finally do TORQUE_DISABLE to prepare to the next sequence.

Since the Dynamixel has its own rotation range, it may shows malfunction if your request on your dynamixel is out of range. For example, Dynamixel MX-28 and Dynamixel PRO 54-200 has its rotatable range as 0 ~ 4028 and -250950 ~ 250950, each.

DXL_MOVING_STATUS_THRESHOLD acts as a criteria for verifying its rotation stopped.

int getch()
{
#ifdef __linux__
  struct termios oldt, newt;
  int ch;
  tcgetattr(STDIN_FILENO, &oldt);
  newt = oldt;
  newt.c_lflag &= ~(ICANON | ECHO);
  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &newt);
  ch = getchar();
  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &oldt);
  return ch;
#elif defined(_WIN32) || defined(_WIN64)
  return _getch();
#endif
}

int kbhit(void)
{
#ifdef __linux__
  struct termios oldt, newt;
  int ch;
  int oldf;

  tcgetattr(STDIN_FILENO, &oldt);
  newt = oldt;
  newt.c_lflag &= ~(ICANON | ECHO);
  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &newt);
  oldf = fcntl(STDIN_FILENO, F_GETFL, 0);
  fcntl(STDIN_FILENO, F_SETFL, oldf | O_NONBLOCK);

  ch = getchar();

  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &oldt);
  fcntl(STDIN_FILENO, F_SETFL, oldf);

  if (ch != EOF)
  {
    ungetc(ch, stdin);
    return 1;
  }

  return 0;
#elif defined(_WIN32) || defined(_WIN64)
  return _kbhit();
#endif
}

These functions accept the key inputs in terms of example action. The example codes mainly apply the function getch() rather than the function kbhit() to get information which key has been pressed.

int main()
{
  // Initialize PortHandler Structs
  // Set the port path
  // Get methods and members of PortHandlerLinux or PortHandlerWindows
  int port_num = portHandler(DEVICENAME);

  // Initialize PacketHandler Structs
  packetHandler();

  // Initialize Groupbulkread Structs
  int group_num = groupBulkRead(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION);

  int index = 0;
  int dxl_comm_result = COMM_TX_FAIL;             // Communication result
  uint8_t dxl_addparam_result = False;               // AddParam result
  uint8_t dxl_getdata_result = False;                // GetParam result
  int dxl_goal_position[2] = { DXL_MINIMUM_POSITION_VALUE, DXL_MAXIMUM_POSITION_VALUE };         // Goal position

  uint8_t dxl_error = 0;                          // Dynamixel error
  uint16_t dxl1_present_position = 0;             // Present position
  uint8_t dxl2_moving = 0;                        // Dynamixel moving status

  // Open port
  if (openPort(port_num))
  {
    printf("Succeeded to open the port!\n");
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Failed to open the port!\n");
    printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
    getch();
    return 0;
  }

  // Set port baudrate
  if (setBaudRate(port_num, BAUDRATE))
  {
    printf("Succeeded to change the baudrate!\n");
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Failed to change the baudrate!\n");
    printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
    getch();
    return 0;
  }

  // Enable Dynamixel#1 Torque
  write1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL1_ID, ADDR_MX_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_ENABLE);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Dynamixel#%d has been successfully connected \n", DXL1_ID);
  }

  // Enable Dynamixel#2 Torque
  write1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL2_ID, ADDR_MX_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_ENABLE);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Dynamixel#%d has been successfully connected \n", DXL2_ID);
  }

  // Add parameter storage for Dynamixel#1 present position value
  dxl_addparam_result = groupBulkReadAddParam(group_num, DXL1_ID, ADDR_MX_PRESENT_POSITION, LEN_MX_PRESENT_POSITION);
  if (dxl_addparam_result != True)
  {
    fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkRead addparam failed", DXL1_ID);
    return 0;
  }

  // Add parameter storage for Dynamixel#2 present moving value
  dxl_addparam_result = groupBulkReadAddParam(group_num, DXL2_ID, ADDR_MX_MOVING, LEN_MX_MOVING);
  if (dxl_addparam_result != True)
  {
    fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkRead addparam failed", DXL2_ID);
    return 0;
  }

  while (1)
  {
    printf("Press any key to continue! (or press ESC to quit!)\n");
    if (getch() == ESC_ASCII_VALUE)
      break;

    // Write Dynamixel#1 goal position
    write2ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL1_ID, ADDR_MX_GOAL_POSITION, dxl_goal_position[index]);
    if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
    {
      printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
    }
    else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
    {
      printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
    }

    // Write Dynamixel#2 goal position
    write2ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL2_ID, ADDR_MX_GOAL_POSITION, dxl_goal_position[index]);
    if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
    {
      printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
    }
    else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
    {
      printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
    }

    do
    {
      // Bulkread present position and moving status
      groupBulkReadTxRxPacket(group_num);
      if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
        printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);

      dxl_getdata_result = groupBulkReadIsAvailable(group_num, DXL1_ID, ADDR_MX_PRESENT_POSITION, LEN_MX_PRESENT_POSITION);
      if (dxl_getdata_result != True)
      {
        fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkRead getdata failed", DXL1_ID);
        return 0;
      }

      dxl_getdata_result = groupBulkReadIsAvailable(group_num, DXL2_ID, ADDR_MX_MOVING, LEN_MX_MOVING);
      if (dxl_getdata_result != True)
      {
        fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkRead getdata failed", DXL2_ID);
        return 0;
      }

      // Get Dynamixel#1 present position value
      dxl1_present_position = groupBulkReadGetData(group_num, DXL1_ID, ADDR_MX_PRESENT_POSITION, LEN_MX_PRESENT_POSITION);

      // Get Dynamixel#2 moving status value
      dxl2_moving = groupBulkReadGetData(group_num, DXL2_ID, ADDR_MX_MOVING, LEN_MX_MOVING);

      printf("[ID:%03d] Present Position : %d \t [ID:%03d] Is Moving : %d\n", DXL1_ID, dxl1_present_position, DXL2_ID, dxl2_moving);

    } while (abs(dxl_goal_position[index] - dxl1_present_position) > DXL_MOVING_STATUS_THRESHOLD);

    // Change goal position
    if (index == 0)
    {
      index = 1;
    }
    else
    {
      index = 0;
    }
  }

  // Disable Dynamixel#1 Torque
  write1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL1_ID, ADDR_MX_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_DISABLE);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }

  // Disable Dynamixel#2 Torque
  write1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL2_ID, ADDR_MX_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_DISABLE);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }

  // Close port
  closePort(port_num);

  return 0;
}

In main() function, the codes call actual functions for Dynamixel control.

// Initialize PortHandler Structs
// Set the port path
// Get methods and members of PortHandlerLinux or PortHandlerWindows
int port_num = portHandler(DEVICENAME);

portHandler() function sets port path as DEVICENAME and get port_num, and prepares an appropriate functions for port control in controller OS automatically. port_num would be used in many functions in the body of the code to specify the port for use.

// Initialize PacketHandler Structs
packetHandler();

packetHandler() function initializes parameters used for packet construction and packet storing.

// Initialize Groupbulkread Structs
int group_num = groupBulkRead(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION);

groupBulkRead() function initializes grouped parameters used for packet construction and packet storing. The utility functions of bulk read deals simultaneously with more than one Dynamixel through #port_num port, building packets by the function which uses PROTOCOL_VERSION.

int index = 0;
int dxl_comm_result = COMM_TX_FAIL;              // Communication result
bool dxl_addparam_result = false;                // AddParam result
bool dxl_getdata_result = false;                 // GetParam result
int dxl_goal_position[2] = {DXL_MINIMUM_POSITION_VALUE, DXL_MAXIMUM_POSITION_VALUE};         // Goal position

uint8_t dxl_error = 0;                          // Dynamixel error
uint16_t dxl1_present_position = 0;             // Present position
uint8_t dxl2_moving = 0;                        // Dynamixel moving status

index variable points the direction to where the Dynamixel should be rotated.
dxl_comm_result indicates which error has been occurred during packet communication.
dxl_addparam_result indicates the result of parameter addition used for sync/bulk related functions
dxl_getdata_result indicates the result of data reception used for sync/bulk related functions
dxl_goal_position stores goal points of Dynamixel rotation.
dxl_error shows the internal error in Dynamixel.
dxl1_present_position views where now Dynamixel DXL1_ID points out.
dxl2_moving views whether the Dynamixel is stopped.

// Open port
if (openPort(port_num))
{
    printf("Succeeded to open the port!\n");
}
else
{
    printf("Failed to open the port!\n");
    printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
    _getch();
    return 0;
}

First, controller opens #port_num port to do serial communication with the Dynamixel. If it fails to open the port, the example will be terminated.

// Set port baudrate
if (setBaudRate(port_num, BAUDRATE))
{
    printf("Succeeded to change the baudrate!\n");
}
else
{
    printf("Failed to change the baudrate!\n");
    printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
    _getch();
    return 0;
}

Secondly, the controller sets the communication BAUDRATE at #port_num port opened previously.

// Enable Dynamixel#1 Torque
write1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL1_ID, ADDR_MX_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_ENABLE);
if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
{
  printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
}
else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
{
  printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
}
else
{
  printf("Dynamixel#%d has been successfully connected \n", DXL1_ID);
}

// Enable Dynamixel#2 Torque
write1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL2_ID, ADDR_MX_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_ENABLE);
if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
{
  printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
}
else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
{
  printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
}
else
{
  printf("Dynamixel#%d has been successfully connected \n", DXL2_ID);
}

As mentioned in the document, above code enables each Dynamixel`s torque to set their status as being ready to move.

write1ByteTxRx() function orders to the #DXL1_ID and #DXL2_ID Dynamixels in PROTOCOL_VERSION communication protocol through #port_num port, writing 1 byte of TORQUE_ENABLE value to ADDR_MX_TORQUE_ENABLE address. The function checks Tx/Rx result and receives Hardware error.

getLastTxRxResult() function and getLastRxPacketError() function get either, and then printTxRxResult() function and printRxPacketError() function show results on the console window if any communication error or Hardware error has been occurred.

// Add parameter storage for Dynamixel#1 present position value
dxl_addparam_result = groupBulkReadAddParam(group_num, DXL1_ID, ADDR_MX_PRESENT_POSITION, LEN_MX_PRESENT_POSITION);
if (dxl_addparam_result != True)
{
  fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkRead addparam failed", DXL1_ID);
  return 0;
}

// Add parameter storage for Dynamixel#2 present moving value
dxl_addparam_result = groupBulkReadAddParam(group_num, DXL2_ID, ADDR_MX_MOVING, LEN_MX_MOVING);
if (dxl_addparam_result != True)
{
  fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkRead addparam failed", DXL2_ID);
  return 0;
}

groupBulkReadAddParam() function stores the Dynamixel ID and address ADDR_MX_MOVING, byte length LEN_MX_MOVING of required data to the bulkread target Dynamixel list.

while (1)
{
  printf("Press any key to continue! (or press ESC to quit!)\n");
  if (getch() == ESC_ASCII_VALUE)
    break;

  // Write Dynamixel#1 goal position
  write2ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL1_ID, ADDR_MX_GOAL_POSITION, dxl_goal_position[index]);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }

  // Write Dynamixel#2 goal position
  write2ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL2_ID, ADDR_MX_GOAL_POSITION, dxl_goal_position[index]);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }

  do
  {
    // Bulkread present position and moving status
    groupBulkReadTxRxPacket(group_num);
    if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
      printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);

    dxl_getdata_result = groupBulkReadIsAvailable(group_num, DXL1_ID, ADDR_MX_PRESENT_POSITION, LEN_MX_PRESENT_POSITION);
    if (dxl_getdata_result != True)
    {
      fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkRead getdata failed", DXL1_ID);
      return 0;
    }

    dxl_getdata_result = groupBulkReadIsAvailable(group_num, DXL2_ID, ADDR_MX_MOVING, LEN_MX_MOVING);
    if (dxl_getdata_result != True)
    {
      fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkRead getdata failed", DXL2_ID);
      return 0;
    }

    // Get Dynamixel#1 present position value
    dxl1_present_position = groupBulkReadGetData(group_num, DXL1_ID, ADDR_MX_PRESENT_POSITION, LEN_MX_PRESENT_POSITION);

    // Get Dynamixel#2 moving status value
    dxl2_moving = groupBulkReadGetData(group_num, DXL2_ID, ADDR_MX_MOVING, LEN_MX_MOVING);

    printf("[ID:%03d] Present Position : %d \t [ID:%03d] Is Moving : %d\n", DXL1_ID, dxl1_present_position, DXL2_ID, dxl2_moving);

  } while (abs(dxl_goal_position[index] - dxl1_present_position) > DXL_MOVING_STATUS_THRESHOLD);

  // Change goal position
  if (index == 0)
  {
    index = 1;
  }
  else
  {
    index = 0;
  }
}

During while() loop, the controller writes and reads each Dynamixel position or mov ing status through packet transmission/reception(Tx/Rx).

To continue their rotation, press any key except ESC.

write2ByteTxRx() function orders to the #DXL1_ID and #DXL2_ID Dynamixels in PROTOCOL_VERSION communication protocol through #port_num port, writing 2 byte of dxl_goal_position[index] value to ADDR_MX_GOAL_POSITION address. The function checks Tx/Rx result and receives Hardware error. getLastTxRxResult() function and getLastRxPacketError() function get either, and then printTxRxResult() function and printRxPacketError() function show results on the console window if any communication error or Hardware error has been occurred.

groupBulkReadTxRxPacket() function orders to the Dynamixel #DXL1_ID and #DXL2_ID at the same time through #port_num port, making it possible to require data bytes from different address. (In this example, LEN_MX_PRESENT_POSITION bytes of the values to the address ADDR_MX_PRESENT_POSITION and LEN_MX_MOVING bytes of the values to the address ADDR_MX_MOVING, each.) The function checks Tx/Rx result. getLastTxRxResult() function gets it, and then printTxRxResult() function shows result on the console window if any communication error has been occurred.

groupBulkReadIsAvailable() function checks if available data is in the groupbulkread data storage. The function returns false if no data is available in the storage.

groupBulkReadGetData() function pop the data received by groupBulkReadTxRxPacket() function out. In the example, it stores LEN_MX_PRESENT_POSITION byte data got from ADDR_MX_PRESENT_POSITION address of DXL1_ID Dynamixel and LEN_MX_MOVING byte data got from ADDR_MX_MOVING address of DXL2_ID Dynamixel, each.

groupBulkReadClearParam() function clears the Dynamixel list of groupbulkread.

Reading their present position will be ended when absolute value of (dxl_goal_position[index] - dxl1_present_position) becomes smaller then DXL_MOVING_STATUS_THRESHOLD.

At last, it changes their direction to the counter-wise and waits for extra key input.

// Disable Dynamixel#1 Torque
write1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL1_ID, ADDR_MX_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_DISABLE);
if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
{
  printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
}
else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
{
  printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
}

// Disable Dynamixel#2 Torque
write1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL2_ID, ADDR_MX_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_DISABLE);
if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
{
  printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
}
else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
{
  printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
}

The controller frees the Dynamixels to be idle.

write1ByteTxRx() function orders to the #DXL1_ID and #DXL2_ID Dynamixels in PROTOCOL_VERSION communication protocol through #port_num port, writing 1 byte of TORQUE_DISABLE value to ADDR_MX_TORQUE_ENABLE address. The function checks Tx/Rx result and receives Hardware error.

getLastTxRxResult() function and getLastRxPacketError() function get either, and then printTxRxResult() function and printRxPacketError() function show results on the console window if any communication error or Hardware error has been occurred.

// Close port
closePort(port_num);

return 0;

Finally, port becomes disposed.