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Item Specifications
Baud Rate 7843 bps ~ 1 Mbps
Resolution 0.29°
Running Degree 0° ~ 300°
Endless Turn
Weight 52.9g
Dimensions (W x H x D) 32mm x 50mm x 40mm
Gear Ratio 32 : 1
No Load Speed 470rpm (at 12V, Wheel Mode)
54rpm (at 12.0V, Joint Mode)
Operating Temperature -5°C ~ +70°F
Input Voltage 9.0 ~ 12.0V (Recommended : 11.1V)
Command Signal Digital Packet
Protocol Type Half Duplex Asynchronous Serial Communication (8bit, 1stop, No Parity)
Physical Connection TTL Level Multi Drop Bus(Daisy Chain Type Connector)
ID 0 ~ 253
Feedback Position, Temperature, Load, Input Voltage, etc
Material Engineering Plastic

Control Table

The Control Table is a structure of data implemented in the DYNAMIXEL. Users can read a specific Data to get status of the DYNAMIXEL with Read Instruction Packets, and modify Data as well to control DYNAMIXEL with WRITE Instruction Packets.

Control Table, Data, Address

The Control Table is a structure that consists of multiple Data fields to store status of the DYNAMIXEL or to control the DYNAMIXEL. Users can check current status of the DYNAMIXEL by reading a specific Data from the Control Table with Read Instruction Packets. WRITE Instruction Packets enable users to control the DYNAMIXEL by changing specific Data in the Control Table. The Address is a unique value when accessing a specific Data in the Control Table with Instruction Packets. In order to read or write data, users must designate a specific Address in the Instruction Packet. Please refer to [Protocol] for more details about Instruction Packets.

Note Two’s complement is applied for the negative value. For more information, please refer to Two’s complement from Wikipedia.


The Control Table is divided into 2 Areas. Data in the RAM Area is reset to initial values when the DYNAMIXEL is turned on (Volatile). On the other hand, modified data in the EEPROM Area keeps their values even when the DYNAMIXEL is turned off (Non-Volatile). Data in the EEPROM Area can only be changed when the value of Torque Enable(64) is cleared to ‘0’.


The Size of data varies from 1 to 4 bytes depend on their usage. Please check the size of data when updating the data with an Instruction Packet.


The Control Table has two different access properties. ‘RW’ property stands for read and write access permission while ‘R’ stands for read only access permission. Data with the read only property cannot be changed by the WRITE Instruction. Read only property(‘R’) is generally used for measuring and monitoring purpose, and read write property(‘RW’) is used for controlling DYNAMIXEL.

Initial Value

Each data in the Control Table is restored to initial values when the DYNAMIXEL is turned on. Default values in the EEPROM area are initial values of the DYNAMIXEL (factory default settings). If any values in the EEPROM area are modified by a user, modified values will be restored as initial values when the DYNAMIXEL is turned on. Initial Values in the RAM area are restored when the DYNAMIXEL is turned on.

Control Table of EEPROM Area

Address Size(Byte) Data Name Description Access Initial Value
0 2 Model Number Model Number R 300
2 1 Firmware Version Firmware Version R -
4 1 Baud Rate Communication Speed RW 1
5 1 Return Delay Time Response Delay Time RW 250
6 2 CW Angle Limit Clockwise Angle Limit RW 0
8 2 CCW Angle Limit Counter-Clockwise Angle Limit RW 1023
11 1 Temperature Limit Maximum Internal Temperature Limit RW 70
12 1 Min Voltage Limit Minimum Input Voltage Limit RW 60
13 1 Max Voltage Limit Maximum Input Voltage Limit RW 140
14 2 Max Torque Maximun Torque RW 1023
16 1 Status Return Level Select Types of Status Return RW 2
17 1 Alarm LED LED for Alarm RW 36
18 1 Shutdown Shutdown Error Information RW 36

Control Table of RAM Area

Address Size(Byte) Data Name Description Access Initial Value
24 1 Torque Enable Motor Torque On/Off RW 0
25 1 LED Status LED On/Off RW 0
26 1 CW Compliance Margin CW Compliance Margin RW 4
27 1 CCW Compliance Margin CCW Compliance Margin RW 4
28 1 CW Compliance Slope CW Compliance Slope RW 64
29 1 CCW Compliance Slope CCW Compliance Slope RW 64
30 2 Goal Position Target Position RW -
32 2 Moving Speed Moving Speed RW -
34 2 Torque Limit Torque Limit(Goal Torque) RW ADD 14&15
36 2 Present Position Present Position R -
38 2 Present Speed Present Speed R -
40 2 Present Load Present Load R -
42 1 Present Voltage Present Voltage R -
43 1 Present Temperature Present Temperature R -
44 1 Registered If Instruction is registered R 0
46 1 Moving Movement Status R 0
47 1 Lock Locking EEPROM RW 0
48 2 Punch Minimum Current Threshold RW 32

Control Table Description

Model Number (0)

This address stores model number of the DYNAMIXEL.

Firmware Version (2)

This address stores firmware version of the DYNAMIXEL.

ID (3)

The ID is a unique value in the network to identify each DYNAMIXEL with an Instruction Packet. 0~252 (0xFC) values can be used as an ID, and 254(0xFE) is occupied as a broadcast ID. The Broadcast ID(254, 0xFE) can send an Instruction Packet to all connected DYNAMIXELs simultaneously.

Note Please avoid using an identical ID for multiple DYNAMIXELs. You may face communication failure or may not be able to detect Dynamixels with an identical ID.

Baud Rate (4)

Baud Rate determines serial communication speed between a controller and DYNAMIXELs.

Value Baud Rate Margin of Error
1(Default) 1M 0.000%
3 500,000 0.000%
4 400,000 0.000%
7 250,000 0.000%
9 200,000 0.000%
16 115200 -2.124%
34 57600 0.794%
103 19200 -0.160%
207 9600 -0.160%

Note Less than 3% of the baud rate error margin will not affect to UART communication.

Return Delay Time (5)

After the DYNAMIXEL receives an Instruction Packet, it delays transmitting the Status Packet for Return Delay Time (9). For instance, if the Return Delay Time(9) is set to ‘10’, the Status Packet will be returned after 20[μsec] when the Instruction Packet is received.

  Value Description
Unit 2[μsec] -
Range 0 ~ 254 Default value ‘250’(500[μsec]), Maximum 508[μsec]

CW/CCW Angle Limit(6, 8)

The angle limit allows the motion to be restrained. The range and the unit of the value is the same as Goal Position(Address 30, 31). CW Angle Limit: the minimum value of Goal Position(Address 30, 31) CCW Angle Limit: the maximum value of Goal Position(Address 30, 31) The following two modes can be set pursuant to the value of CW and CCW.

Operation Type CW / CCW
Wheel Mode both are 0
Joint Mode neither are 0

The wheel mode can be used to wheel-type operation robots since motors of the robots spin infinitely. The joint mode can be used to multi-joints robot since the robots can be controlled with specific angles.

The Highest Limit Temperature

Caution Do not set the temperature lower/higher than the default value. When the temperature alarm shutdown occurs, wait 20 minutes to cool the temperature before re-use. Using the product when the temperature is high may and can cause damage.

Min/Max Voltage Limit

It is the operation range of voltage. 50 to 250 (0x32 ~ 0x96) can be used. The unit is 0.1V. For example, if the value is 80, it is 8V. If Present Voltage (Address42) is out of the range, Voltage Range Error Bit (Bit0) of Status Packet is returned as ‘1’ and Alarm is triggered as set in the addresses 17 and 18.

Max Torque

It is the torque value of maximum output. 0 to 1023 (0x3FF) can be used, and the unit is about 0.1%. For example, Data 1023 (0x3FF) means that Dynamixel will use 100% of the maximum torque it can produce while Data 512 (0x200) means that Dynamixel will use 50% of the maximum torque. When the power is turned on, Torque Limit (Addresses 34 and 35) uses the value as the initial value.

Status Return Level

It decides how to return Status Packet. There are three ways like the below table.

Value Return of Status Packet
0 No return against all commands (Except PING Command)
1 Return only for the READ command
2 Return for all commands

When Instruction Packet is Broadcast ID, Status Packet is not returned regardless of Status Return Level.

Alarm LED / Alarm Shutdown

Dynamixel can protect itself by detecting errors occur during the operation. The errors can be set are as the table below.

Bit Name Description
Bit 7 0 -
Bit 6 Instruction Error When undefined Instruction is transmitted or the Action command is delivered without the reg_write command
Bit 5 Overload Error When the current load cannot be controlled with the set maximum torque
Bit 4 CheckSum Error When the Checksum of the transmitted Instruction Packet is invalid
Bit 3 Range Error When the command is given beyond the range of usage
Bit 2 OverHeating Error When the internal temperature is out of the range of operating temperature set in the Control Table
Bit 1 Angle Limit Error When Goal Position is written with the value that is not between CW Angle Limit and CCW Angle Limit
Bit 0 Input Voltage Error When the applied voltage is out of the range of operating voltage set in the Control Table

It is possible to make duplicate set since the function of each bit is run by the logic of ‘OR’. That is, if 0X05 (binary 00000101) is set, both Input Voltage Error and Overheating Error can be detected. If errors occur, in case of Alarm LED, the LED blinks; in case of Alarm Shutdown, the motor output becomes 0 % by making the value of Torque Limit(Address 34, 35) as 0.

Torque Enable

Value Description
0 Keeps Torque from generating by interrupting the power of motor
1 Generates Torque by impressing the power to the motor.


Bit Description
0 Turn OFF the LED
1 Turn ON the LED

Compliance Margin

It exists in each direction of CW/CCW and means the error between goal position and present position. The range of the value is 0~255, and the unit is the same as Goal Position.(Address 30,31) The greater the value, the more difference occurs.

Compliance Slope

It exists in each direction of CW/CCW and sets the level of Torque near the goal position. Compliance Slope is set in 7 steps, the higher the value, the more flexibility is obtained. Data representative value is actually used value. That is, even if the value is set to 25, 16 is used internally as the representative value.

Step Data Value Data Representative Value
1 0(0x00) ~ 3(0x03) 2(0x02)
2 4(0x04) ~ 7(0x07) 4(0x04)
3 8(0x08)~15(0x0F) 8(0x08)
4 16(0x10)~31(0x1F) 16(0x10)
5 32(0x20)~63(0x3F) 32(0x20)
6 64(0x40)~127(0x7F) 64(0x40)
7 128(0x80)~254(0xFE) 128(0x80)

Compliance is to set the control flexibility of the motor. The following diagram shows the relationship between output torque and position of the motor.

Goal Position

It is a position value of destination. 0 to 1023 (0x3FF) is available. The unit is 0.29 degree. If Goal Position is out of the range, Angle Limit Error Bit (Bit1) of Status Packet is returned as ‘1’ and Alarm is triggered as set in Alarm LED/Shutdown.

The picture above is the front view of Dynamixel

Note If it is set to Wheel Mode, this value is not used.

Moving Speed

It is a moving speed to Goal Position. The range and the unit of the value may vary depending on the operation mode.

Torque Limit

It is the value of the maximum torque limit. 0 to 1023 (0x3FF) is available, and the unit is about 0.1%. For example, if the value is 512, it is about 50%; that means only 50% of the maximum torque will be used. If the power is turned on, the value of Max Torque (Address 14, 15) is used as the initial value.

Note If the function of Alarm Shutdown is triggered, the motor loses its torque because the value becomes 0. At this moment, if the value is changed to the value other than 0, the motor can be used again.

Present Position

It is the current position value of Dynamixel. The range of the value is 0~1023 (0x3FF), and the unit is 0.29 degree.

The picture above is the front view of Dynamixel.

Caution If it is set to Wheel Mode, the value cannot be used to measure the moving distance and the rotation frequency.

Present Speed

It is the current moving speed. 0~2047 (0X7FF) can be used. If a value is in the rage of 0~1023, it means that the motor rotates to the CCW direction. If a value is in the rage of 1024~2047, it means that the motor rotates to the CW direction. That is, the 10th bit becomes the direction bit to control the direction, and 0 and 1024 are equal. The unit of this value varies depending on operation mode.

Present Load

It means currently applied load. The range of the value is 0~2047, and the unit is about 0.1%. If the value is 0~1023, it means the load works to the CCW direction. If the value is 1024~2047, it means the load works to the CW direction. That is, the 10th bit becomes the direction bit to control the direction, and 1024 is equal to 0. For example, the value is 512, it means the load is detected in the direction of CCW about 50% of the maximum torque.

Bit 15 ~ 11 10 9 ~ 0
Value 0 Load Direction Data (Load Ratio)

Note CCW Load : Load Direction = 0, CW Load : Load Direction = 1

Note Present load is an inferred value based on the internal output value; not a measured value using torque sensor, etc. Therefore, it may be inaccurate for measuring weight or torque. It is recommended to use it for predicting the direction and size of the force being applied to the joint.

Present Voltage

It is the size of the current voltage supplied. This value is 10 times larger than the actual voltage. For example, when 10V is supplied, the data value is 100 (0x64)

Present Temperature

It is the internal temperature of Dynamixel in Celsius. Data value is identical to the actual temperature in Celsius. For example, if the data value is 85 (0x55), the current internal temperature is 85°C.

Registered Instruction

Value Description
0 There are no commands transmitted by REG_WRITE
1 There are commands transmitted by REG_WRITE

Note If ACTION command is executed, the value is changed into 0.


Value Description
0 Goal position command execution is completed
1 Goal position command execution is in progress


Value Description
0 EEPROM area can be modified
1 EEPROM area cannot be modified

Caution If Lock is set to 1, the power must be turned off and then turned on again to change into 0.


Current to drive motor is at minimum. Can choose vales from 0x20 to 0x3FF.

How to Assemble


Horn and Bearing Replacement

The horn is installed on the front wheel gear serration of the DYNAMIXEL whereas the bearing set is installed on the back.

Installing the Horn

Place the thrust horn washer into the actuator before inserting the horn. You must carefully align the horn to the wheel gear serration by aligning dots.

Once alignment is properly done, gently push the center of the horn toward the actuator. Make sure that the horn washer is in place as you tighten the bolt.

Installing the Bearing Set

You may need to remove the bearing set from the previous actuator and reinstall it into the new actuator. The bearing set can also be purchased separately. As bearing set is rotating freely, therefore alignment is not required when assembling to DYNAMIXEL.


Note Compatibility Guide

Quick Start