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EX-106+

WARNING : EX-106+ has been discontinued.

Specifications

Item Specifications
Baud Rate 7843 bps ~ 1 Mbps
Resolution 0.06°
Running Degree 0° ~ 251°
Endless Turn
Weight 154g
Dimensions (W x H x D) 40.2mm x 65.1mm x 46mm
Gear Ratio 184 : 1
Stall Torque 10.9 N*m (at 18.5V, 7A)
No Load Speed 91rpm (at 18.5V)
Operating Temperature -5°C ~ +80°C
Input Voltage 12 ~ 18.5V (Recommended : 14.8V)
Command Signal Digital Packet
Protocol Type RS485 Asynchronous Serial Communication
(8bit, 1stop, No Parity)
Physical Connection RS485 Multi Drop Bus(Daisy Chain Type Connector)
ID 0 ~ 253
Feedback Position, Temperature, Load, Input Voltage, etc
Material Full Metal Gear, Aluminium Front Case,
Engineering Plastic Body
Standby Current 55mA

NOTE : Stall torque is the maximum instantaneous and static torque. Stable motions are possible with robots designed for loads with 1/5 or less of the stall torque.


DANGER
(May cause serious injury or death)

  • Never place items containing water, flammables, and solvents near product.
  • Never place fingers, arms, toes, and other body parts near product during operation.
  • Cut power off if product emits strange odors or smoke.
  • Keep product out of reach of children.
  • Check the power polarity before wiring.


CAUTION
(May cause injury or damage to product)

  • Do not operate the product at a temperature exceeding -5 ~ +80 [°C] range.
  • Do not insert sharp blades nor pins during product operation.


ATTENTION
(May cause injury or damage to product)

  • Do not disassemble or modify product.
  • Do not drop or apply strong shock to product.

Control Table

The Control Table is a structure of data implemented in the device. Users can read a specific Data to get status of the device with Read Instruction Packets, and modify Data as well to control the device with WRITE Instruction Packets.

Control Table, Data, Address

The Control Table is a structure that consists of multiple Data fields to store status or to control the device. Users can check current status of the device by reading a specific Data from the Control Table with Read Instruction Packets. WRITE Instruction Packets enable users to control the device by changing specific Data in the Control Table. The Address is a unique value when accessing a specific Data in the Control Table with Instruction Packets. In order to read or write data, users must designate a specific Address in the Instruction Packet. Please refer to Protocol 1.0 for more details about Instruction Packets.

NOTE : Two’s complement is applied for the negative value. For more information, please refer to Two’s complement from Wikipedia.

Area (EEPROM, RAM)

The Control Table is divided into 2 Areas. Data in the RAM Area is reset to initial values when the power is reset(Volatile). On the other hand, data in the EEPROM Area is maintained even when the device is powered off(Non-Volatile).

Data in the EEPROM Area can only be written to if Torque Enable(24) is cleared to ‘0’(Off).

Size

The Size of data varies from 1 ~ 2 bytes depend on their usage. Please check the size of data when updating the data with an Instruction Packet. For data larger than 2 bytes will be saved according to Little Endian.

Access

The Control Table has two different access properties. ‘RW’ property stands for read and write access permission while ‘R’ stands for read only access permission. Data with the read only property cannot be changed by the WRITE Instruction. Read only property(‘R’) is generally used for measuring and monitoring purpose, and read write property(‘RW’) is used for controlling device.

Initial Value

Each data in the Control Table is restored to initial values when the device is turned on. Default values in the EEPROM area are initial values of the device (factory default settings). If any values in the EEPROM area are modified by a user, modified values will be restored as initial values when the device is turned on. Initial Values in the RAM area are restored when the device is turned on.

Control Table of EEPROM Area

Address Size
(Byte)
Data Name Description Access Initial
Value
0 2 Model Number Model Number R 107
2 1 Firmware Version Firmware Version R -
3 1 ID DYNAMIXEL ID RW 1
4 1 Baud Rate Communication Speed RW 34
5 1 Return Delay Time Response Delay Time RW 250
6 2 CW Angle Limit Clockwise Angle Limit RW 0
8 2 CCW Angle Limit Counter-Clockwise Angle Limit RW 4,095
10 1 Drive Mode Dual Mode Setting RW 0
11 1 Temperature Limit Maximum Internal Temperature Limit RW 80
12 1 Min Voltage Limit Minimum Input Voltage Limit RW 60
13 1 Max Voltage Limit Maximum Input Voltage Limit RW 240
14 2 Max Torque Maximun Torque RW 1023
16 1 Status Return Level Select Types of Status Return RW 2
17 1 Alarm LED LED for Alarm RW 36
18 1 Shutdown Shutdown Error Information RW 36

Control Table of RAM Area

Address Size
(Byte)
Data Name Description Access Initial
Value
24 1 Torque Enable Motor Torque On/Off RW 0
25 1 LED Status LED On/Off RW 0
26 1 CW Compliance Margin CW Compliance Margin RW 1
27 1 CCW Compliance Margin CCW Compliance Margin RW 1
28 1 CW Compliance Slope CW Compliance Slope RW 32
29 1 CCW Compliance Slope CCW Compliance Slope RW 32
30 2 Goal Position Target Position RW -
32 2 Moving Speed Moving Speed RW -
34 2 Torque Limit Torque Limit(Goal Torque) RW ADD 14&15
36 2 Present Position Present Position R -
38 2 Present Speed Present Speed R -
40 2 Present Load Present Load R -
42 1 Present Voltage Present Voltage R -
43 1 Present Temperature Present Temperature R -
44 1 Registered If Instruction is registered R 0
46 1 Moving Movement Status R 0
47 1 Lock Locking EEPROM RW 0
48 2 Punch Minimum Current Threshold RW 0
56 2 Sensed Current Consuming Current R -

Control Table Description

Model Number (0)

This address stores model number of the DYNAMIXEL.

Firmware Version (2)

This address stores firmware version of the DYNAMIXEL.

ID (3)

The ID is a unique value in the network to identify each DYNAMIXEL with an Instruction Packet. 0~252 (0xFC) values can be used as an ID, and 254(0xFE) is occupied as a broadcast ID. The Broadcast ID(254, 0xFE) can send an Instruction Packet to all connected DYNAMIXELs simultaneously.

NOTE : Please avoid using an identical ID for multiple DYNAMIXELs. You may face communication failure or may not be able to detect Dynamixels with an identical ID.

Baud Rate (4)

Baud Rate determines serial communication speed between a controller and DYNAMIXELs.

Value Baud Rate Margin of Error
1 1M 0.000%
3 500,000 0.000%
4 400,000 0.000%
7 250,000 0.000%
9 200,000 0.000%
16 115200 -2.124%
34(Default) 57600 0.794%
103 19200 -0.160%
207 9600 -0.160%

NOTE : Less than 3% of the baud rate error margin will not affect to UART communication.

NOTE : For the stable communication with higher baudrate, configure USB Latency value to the lower.
USB Latency Setting

Return Delay Time (5)

After the DYNAMIXEL receives an Instruction Packet, it delays transmitting the Status Packet for Return Delay Time (9). For instance, if the Return Delay Time(9) is set to ‘10’, the Status Packet will be returned after 20[μsec] when the Instruction Packet is received.

  Value Description
Unit 2[μsec] -
Range 0 ~ 254 Default value ‘250’(500[μsec]), Maximum 508[μsec]

CW/CCW Angle Limit (6, 8)

The angle limit allows the motion to be restrained. The range and the unit of the value is the same as Goal Position(Address 30, 31). CW Angle Limit: the minimum value of Goal Position(Address 30, 31) CCW Angle Limit: the maximum value of Goal Position(Address 30, 31) The following two modes can be set pursuant to the value of CW and CCW.

Operation Type CW / CCW
Wheel Mode both are 0
Joint Mode neither are 0

The wheel mode can be used to wheel-type operation robots since motors of the robots spin infinitely. The joint mode can be used to multi-joints robot since the robots can be controlled with specific angles.

Drive Mode (10)

This address configures Drive Mode of DYNAMIXEL.

Bit Item Description
Bit 7(0x80) - Unused, always ‘0’
Bit 6(0x40) - Unused, always ‘0’
Bit 5(0x20) - Unused, always ‘0’
Bit 4(0x10) - Unused, always ‘0’
Bit 3(0x08) - Unused, always ‘0’
Bit 2(0x04) - Unused, always ‘0’
Bit 1(0x02) Master/Slave Mode
(Dual Joint)
[0] Master Mode: Operate as a Master DYNAMIXEL.
[1] Slave Mode: Operate as Slave DYNAMIXEL
Bit 0(0x01) Normal/Reverse Mode [0] Normal Mode: CCW(Positive), CW(Negative)
[1] Reverse Mode: CCW(Negative), CW(Positive)

NOTE : If the value of Bit 0(Normal/Reverse Mode) of the Drive Mode(10) is set to 1, rotational direction is inverted.
Thus, Goal Position, Present Position will have a inverted direction.
This feature can be very useful when configuring symmetrical joint or wheel system.

CAUTION : When MX-106 and EX-106+ are set to Wheel Mode(endless), Normal/Reverse Mode is not available.
Normal/Reverse Mode is activated under Joint Mode and Multi-turn Mode.
Please refer to CW/CCW Angle Limit for configuring Operation Type.

Dual Mode

Dual Mode is intended to combine two DYNAMIXELs into a single joint to enhance the performance.
In order to use Dual Mode, Slave DYNAMIXEL should be connected to Master DYNAMIXEL with the Sync Cable.

Please note that the Slave DYNAMIXEL is directly controlled only by the PWM signal from the Master DYNAMIXEL through the Sync Cable.
Thus, Goal Position, Moving Speed of the Slave DYNAMIXEL are unused and ignored.

The rotational direction of Slave DYNAMIXEL is decided by the type of Sync Cable rather than the Normal/Reverse Mode setting of Slave DYNAMIXEL.
The twisted sync cable will actuate the Slave DYNAMIXEL to the opposite direction of the Master DYNAMIXEL while regular sync cable actuate to the same direction.

Sync Cable Description
Regular Sync Cable Slave DYNAMIXEL is controlled by the PWM Signal from the Master DYNAMIXEL.
Master and Slave DYNAMIXELs rotate in the same direction.
Twisted Sync Cable Slave DYNAMIXEL is controlled by the Inverted PWM Signal from the Master DYNAMIXEL.
Master and Slave DYNAMIXELs rotate in the opposite direction.

CAUTION : If Master and Slave are not physically connected by frame, both DYNAMIXELs may not perfectly synchronized due to the load applied on each DYNAMIXEL.
Please use appropriate frame to connect DYNAMIXELs in Dual Mode.

Temperature Limit (11)

CAUTION : Do not set the temperature lower/higher than the default value. When the temperature alarm shutdown occurs, wait 20 minutes to cool the temperature before re-use. Using the product when the temperature is high may and can cause damage.

Min/Max Voltage Limit (12, 13)

It is the operation range of voltage.

Unit Value Range Description
About 0.1V 50 ~ 250 5.0 ~ 25.0V

For example, if the value is 80, the voltage is 8V. If Present Voltage(42) is out of the range, Voltage Range Error Bit (Bit0) of Status Packet is returned as ‘1’ and Alarm is triggered as set in the addresses 17 and 18.

Max Torque (14)

It is the torque value of maximum output. 0 to 1023 (0x3FF) can be used, and the unit is about 0.1%. For example, Data 1023 (0x3FF) means that Dynamixel will use 100% of the maximum torque it can produce while Data 512 (0x200) means that Dynamixel will use 50% of the maximum torque. When the power is turned on, Torque Limit (Addresses 34 and 35) uses the value as the initial value.

Status Return Level (16)

It decides how to return Status Packet. There are three ways like the below table.

Value Return of Status Packet
0 No return against all commands (Except PING Command)
1 Return only for the READ command
2 Return for all commands

When Instruction Packet is Broadcast ID, Status Packet is not returned regardless of Status Return Level.

Alarm LED(17), Shutdown(18)

Dynamixel can protect itself by detecting errors occur during the operation. The errors can be set are as the table below.

Bit Name Description
Bit 7 0 -
Bit 6 Instruction Error When undefined Instruction is transmitted or the Action command is delivered without the reg_write command
Bit 5 Overload Error When the current load cannot be controlled with the set maximum torque
Bit 4 CheckSum Error When the Checksum of the transmitted Instruction Packet is invalid
Bit 3 Range Error When the command is given beyond the range of usage
Bit 2 OverHeating Error When the internal temperature is out of the range of operating temperature set in the Control Table
Bit 1 Angle Limit Error When Goal Position is written with the value that is not between CW Angle Limit and CCW Angle Limit
Bit 0 Input Voltage Error When the applied voltage is out of the range of operating voltage set in the Control Table

It is possible to make duplicate set since the function of each bit is run by the logic of ‘OR’. That is, if 0X05 (binary 00000101) is set, both Input Voltage Error and Overheating Error can be detected. If errors occur, in case of Alarm LED, the LED blinks; in case of Alarm Shutdown, the motor output becomes 0 % by making the value of Torque Limit(Address 34, 35) as 0.

Torque Enable (24)

Value Description
0 Keeps Torque from generating by interrupting the power of motor
1 Generates Torque by impressing the power to the motor.

LED (25)

Bit Description
0 Turn OFF the LED
1 Turn ON the LED

Compliance Margin (26, 27)

It exists in each direction of CW/CCW and means the error between goal position and present position. The range of the value is 0~255, and the unit is the same as Goal Position.(Address 30,31) The greater the value, the more difference occurs.

Compliance Slope (28, 29)

It exists in each direction of CW/CCW and sets the level of Torque near the goal position. Compliance Slope is set in 7 steps, the higher the value, the more flexibility is obtained. Data representative value is actually used value. That is, even if the value is set to 25, 16 is used internally as the representative value.

Step Data Value Data Representative Value
1 0(0x00) ~ 3(0x03) 2(0x02)
2 4(0x04) ~ 7(0x07) 4(0x04)
3 8(0x08)~15(0x0F) 8(0x08)
4 16(0x10)~31(0x1F) 16(0x10)
5 32(0x20)~63(0x3F) 32(0x20)
6 64(0x40)~127(0x7F) 64(0x40)
7 128(0x80)~254(0xFE) 128(0x80)

Compliance is to set the control flexibility of the motor. The following diagram shows the relationship between output torque and position of the motor.

Goal Position (30)

It is a position value of destination. 0 to 1023 (0x3FF) is available. The unit is 0.29 degree. If Goal Position is out of the range, Angle Limit Error Bit (Bit1) of Status Packet is returned as ‘1’ and Alarm is triggered as set in Alarm LED/Shutdown.

The picture above is the front view of Dynamixel

NOTE : If it is set to Wheel Mode, this value is not used.

Moving Speed (32)

It is a moving speed to Goal Position. The range and the unit of the value may vary depending on the operation mode.

NOTE : Please check the maximum rpm of the Dynamixel. The motor cannot exceed the maximum rpm with the higher Moving Speed value.

Torque Limit (34)

It is the value of the maximum torque limit. 0 to 1023 (0x3FF) is available, and the unit is about 0.1%. For example, if the value is 512, it is about 50%; that means only 50% of the maximum torque will be used. If the power is turned on, the value of Max Torque (Address 14, 15) is used as the initial value.

NOTE : If the function of Alarm Shutdown is triggered, the motor loses its torque because the value becomes 0. At this moment, if the value is changed to the value other than 0, the motor can be used again.

Present Position (36)

It is the current position value of Dynamixel. The range of the value is 0~1023 (0x3FF), and the unit is 0.29 degree.

The picture above is the front view of Dynamixel.

Present Speed (38)

It is the current moving speed. 0~2047 (0X7FF) can be used. If a value is in the rage of 0~1023, it means that the motor rotates to the CCW direction. If a value is in the rage of 1024~2047, it means that the motor rotates to the CW direction. That is, the 10th bit becomes the direction bit to control the direction, and 0 and 1024 are equal. The unit of this value varies depending on operation mode.

Present Load (40)

It means currently applied load. The range of the value is 0~2047, and the unit is about 0.1%. If the value is 0~1023, it means the load works to the CCW direction. If the value is 1024~2047, it means the load works to the CW direction. That is, the 10th bit becomes the direction bit to control the direction, and 1024 is equal to 0. For example, the value is 512, it means the load is detected in the direction of CCW about 50% of the maximum torque.

Bit 15 ~ 11 10 9 ~ 0
Value 0 Load Direction Data (Load Ratio)

NOTE : CCW Load : Load Direction = 0, CW Load : Load Direction = 1

NOTE : Present load is an inferred value based on the internal output value; not a measured value using torque sensor, etc. Therefore, it may be inaccurate for measuring weight or torque. It is recommended to use it for predicting the direction and size of the force being applied to the joint.

Present Voltage (42)

It is the size of the current voltage supplied. This value is 10 times larger than the actual voltage. For example, when 10V is supplied, the data value is 100 (0x64)

Present Temperature (43)

It is the internal temperature of Dynamixel in Celsius. Data value is identical to the actual temperature in Celsius. For example, if the data value is 85 (0x55), the current internal temperature is 85°C.

Registered Instruction (44)

Value Description
0 There are no commands transmitted by REG_WRITE
1 There are commands transmitted by REG_WRITE

NOTE : If ACTION command is executed, the value is changed into 0.

Moving (46)

Value Description
0 Goal position command execution is completed
1 Goal position command execution is in progress

Lock (47)

Value Description
0 EEPROM area can be modified
1 EEPROM area cannot be modified

CAUTION : If Lock is set to 1, the power must be turned off and then turned on again to change into 0.

Punch (48)

Current to drive motor is at minimum. Can choose vales from 0x20 to 0x3FF.

Sensed Current (56)

It is the amount of current in use. The range from 0 to 1023 is used, and the unit is 10mA. The value less than 512 means the motor consumes the current and torques to the direction of CCW. The value greater than 512 means the motor consumes the current and torques to the direction of CW. 512 is equal to 0mA, and it means there is no torque from the motor.

For example, if the value is 612, the motor torques to the direction of CW and consumes 1000mA(612-512=100 => 100x10mA = 1,000mA).

If the value is 312, the motor torques to the direction of CW and consumes 2000mA(512-312= -200 => 200x10mA=2,000mA).

How to Assemble

Maintenance

Horn and Bearing Replacement

The horn is installed on the front wheel gear serration of the DYNAMIXEL whereas the bearing set is installed on the back.

Installing the Horn

Place the thrust horn washer into the actuator before inserting the horn. You must carefully align the horn to the wheel gear serration by aligning dots.

Once alignment is properly done, gently push the center of the horn toward the actuator. Make sure that the horn washer is in place as you tighten the bolt.

Installing the Bearing Set

You may need to remove the bearing set from the previous actuator and reinstall it into the new actuator. The bearing set can also be purchased separately. As bearing set is rotating freely, therefore alignment is not required when assembling to DYNAMIXEL.

Reference

NOTE : Compatibility Guide

Connector Information

Item RS-485
Pinout 1 GND
2 VDD
3 DATA+
4 DATA-
Diagram
Housing
MOLEX 50-37-5043
PCB Header
MOLEX 22-03-5045
Crimp Terminal MOLEX 08-70-1039
Wire Gauge 21 AWG

WARNING: Check the pinout! The pinout of Dynamixel can differ from the pinout of connector manufacturer.

Drawings

Please also checkout ROBOTIS Download Center for software applications, 3D/2D CAD, and other useful resources!

Communication Circuit

To control the Dynamixel actuators, the main controller needs to convert its UART signals to the half duplex type. The recommended circuit diagram for this is shown below.

TTL Communication

RS-485 Communication

The power of Dynamixel is supplied via Pin1(-), Pin2(+).
(The above circuit is built into Dynamixel-only controller.)
In the above circuit diagram, the direction of data signal of TxD and RxD in the TTL Level is determined according to the level of DIRECTION 485 as follows:
In case of DIRECTION485 Level = High: The signal of TxD is output to D+ and D-
In case of DIRECTION485 Level = Low: The signal of D+ and D- is output to RxD

WARNING: Check the pinout! The pinout of Dynamixel can differ from the pinout of connector manufacturer.