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Sample Code

CPP Protocol 2.0

CPP Bulk Read Write Protocol 2.0

Sample code

/*
 * bulk_read_write.cpp
 *
 *  Created on: 2016. 2. 21.
 *      Author: leon
 */

//
// *********     Bulk Read and Bulk Write Example      *********
//
//
// Available Dynamixel model on this example : All models using Protocol 2.0
// This example is designed for using two Dynamixel PRO 54-200, and an USB2DYNAMIXEL.
// To use another Dynamixel model, such as X series, see their details in E-Manual(support.robotis.com) and edit below "#define"d variables yourself.
// Be sure that Dynamixel PRO properties are already set as %% ID : 1 and 2 / Baudnum : 3 (Baudrate : 1000000 [1M])
//

#ifdef __linux__
#include <unistd.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <termios.h>
#elif defined(_WIN32) || defined(_WIN64)
#include <conio.h>
#endif

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>

#include "dynamixel_sdk.h"                                  // Uses Dynamixel SDK library

// Control table address
#define ADDR_PRO_TORQUE_ENABLE          562                 // Control table address is different in Dynamixel model
#define ADDR_PRO_LED_RED                563
#define ADDR_PRO_GOAL_POSITION          596
#define ADDR_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION       611

// Data Byte Length
#define LEN_PRO_LED_RED                 1
#define LEN_PRO_GOAL_POSITION           4
#define LEN_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION        4

// Protocol version
#define PROTOCOL_VERSION                2.0                 // See which protocol version is used in the Dynamixel

// Default setting
#define DXL1_ID                         1                   // Dynamixel#1 ID: 1
#define DXL2_ID                         2                   // Dynamixel#2 ID: 2
#define BAUDRATE                        1000000
#define DEVICENAME                      "/dev/ttyUSB0"      // Check which port is being used on your controller
                                                            // ex) Windows: "COM1"   Linux: "/dev/ttyUSB0"

#define TORQUE_ENABLE                   1                   // Value for enabling the torque
#define TORQUE_DISABLE                  0                   // Value for disabling the torque
#define DXL_MINIMUM_POSITION_VALUE      -150000             // Dynamixel will rotate between this value
#define DXL_MAXIMUM_POSITION_VALUE      150000              // and this value (note that the Dynamixel would not move when the position value is out of movable range. Check e-manual about the range of the Dynamixel you use.)
#define DXL_MOVING_STATUS_THRESHOLD     20                  // Dynamixel moving status threshold

#define ESC_ASCII_VALUE                 0x1b

int getch()
{
#ifdef __linux__
  struct termios oldt, newt;
  int ch;
  tcgetattr(STDIN_FILENO, &oldt);
  newt = oldt;
  newt.c_lflag &= ~(ICANON | ECHO);
  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &newt);
  ch = getchar();
  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &oldt);
  return ch;
#elif defined(_WIN32) || defined(_WIN64)
  return _getch();
#endif
}

int kbhit(void)
{
#ifdef __linux__
  struct termios oldt, newt;
  int ch;
  int oldf;

  tcgetattr(STDIN_FILENO, &oldt);
  newt = oldt;
  newt.c_lflag &= ~(ICANON | ECHO);
  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &newt);
  oldf = fcntl(STDIN_FILENO, F_GETFL, 0);
  fcntl(STDIN_FILENO, F_SETFL, oldf | O_NONBLOCK);

  ch = getchar();

  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &oldt);
  fcntl(STDIN_FILENO, F_SETFL, oldf);

  if (ch != EOF)
  {
    ungetc(ch, stdin);
    return 1;
  }

  return 0;
#elif defined(_WIN32) || defined(_WIN64)
  return _kbhit();
#endif
}

int main()
{
  // Initialize PortHandler instance
  // Set the port path
  // Get methods and members of PortHandlerLinux or PortHandlerWindows
  dynamixel::PortHandler *portHandler = dynamixel::PortHandler::getPortHandler(DEVICENAME);

  // Initialize PacketHandler instance
  // Set the protocol version
  // Get methods and members of Protocol1PacketHandler or Protocol2PacketHandler
  dynamixel::PacketHandler *packetHandler = dynamixel::PacketHandler::getPacketHandler(PROTOCOL_VERSION);

  // Initialize GroupBulkWrite instance
  dynamixel::GroupBulkWrite groupBulkWrite(portHandler, packetHandler);

  // Initialize GroupBulkRead instance
  dynamixel::GroupBulkRead groupBulkRead(portHandler, packetHandler);

  int index = 0;
  int dxl_comm_result = COMM_TX_FAIL;             // Communication result
  bool dxl_addparam_result = false;                // addParam result
  bool dxl_getdata_result = false;                 // GetParam result
  int dxl_goal_position[2] = {DXL_MINIMUM_POSITION_VALUE, DXL_MAXIMUM_POSITION_VALUE};         // Goal position

  uint8_t dxl_error = 0;                          // Dynamixel error
  uint8_t dxl_led_value[2] = {0x00, 0xFF};        // Dynamixel LED value for write
  uint8_t param_goal_position[4];
  int32_t dxl1_present_position = 0;              // Present position
  uint8_t dxl2_led_value_read;                    // Dynamixel LED value for read

  // Open port
  if (portHandler->openPort())
  {
    printf("Succeeded to open the port!\n");
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Failed to open the port!\n");
    printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
    getch();
    return 0;
  }

  // Set port baudrate
  if (portHandler->setBaudRate(BAUDRATE))
  {
    printf("Succeeded to change the baudrate!\n");
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Failed to change the baudrate!\n");
    printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
    getch();
    return 0;
  }

  // Enable Dynamixel#1 Torque
  dxl_comm_result = packetHandler->write1ByteTxRx(portHandler, DXL1_ID, ADDR_PRO_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_ENABLE, &dxl_error);
  if (dxl_comm_result != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    packetHandler->printTxRxResult(dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if (dxl_error != 0)
  {
    packetHandler->printRxPacketError(dxl_error);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("DXL#%d has been successfully connected \n", DXL1_ID);
  }

  // Enable Dynamixel#2 Torque
  dxl_comm_result = packetHandler->write1ByteTxRx(portHandler, DXL2_ID, ADDR_PRO_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_ENABLE, &dxl_error);
  if (dxl_comm_result != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    packetHandler->printTxRxResult(dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if (dxl_error != 0)
  {
    packetHandler->printRxPacketError(dxl_error);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("DXL#%d has been successfully connected \n", DXL2_ID);
  }

  // Add parameter storage for Dynamixel#1 present position
  dxl_addparam_result = groupBulkRead.addParam(DXL1_ID, ADDR_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION, LEN_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION);
  if (dxl_addparam_result != true)
  {
    fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] grouBulkRead addparam failed", DXL1_ID);
    return 0;
  }

  // Add parameter storage for Dynamixel#2 LED value
  dxl_addparam_result = groupBulkRead.addParam(DXL2_ID, ADDR_PRO_LED_RED, LEN_PRO_LED_RED);
  if (dxl_addparam_result != true)
  {
    fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] grouBulkRead addparam failed", DXL2_ID);
    return 0;
  }

  while(1)
  {
    printf("Press any key to continue! (or press ESC to quit!)\n");
    if (getch() == ESC_ASCII_VALUE)
      break;

    // Allocate goal position value into byte array
    param_goal_position[0] = DXL_LOBYTE(DXL_LOWORD(dxl_goal_position[index]));
    param_goal_position[1] = DXL_HIBYTE(DXL_LOWORD(dxl_goal_position[index]));
    param_goal_position[2] = DXL_LOBYTE(DXL_HIWORD(dxl_goal_position[index]));
    param_goal_position[3] = DXL_HIBYTE(DXL_HIWORD(dxl_goal_position[index]));

    // Add parameter storage for Dynamixel#1 goal position
    dxl_addparam_result = groupBulkWrite.addParam(DXL1_ID, ADDR_PRO_GOAL_POSITION, LEN_PRO_GOAL_POSITION, param_goal_position);
    if (dxl_addparam_result != true)
    {
      fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkWrite addparam failed", DXL1_ID);
      return 0;
    }

    // Add parameter storage for Dynamixel#2 LED value
    dxl_addparam_result = groupBulkWrite.addParam(DXL2_ID, ADDR_PRO_LED_RED, LEN_PRO_LED_RED, &dxl_led_value[index]);
    if (dxl_addparam_result != true)
    {
      fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkWrite addparam failed", DXL2_ID);
      return 0;
    }

    // Bulkwrite goal position and LED value
    dxl_comm_result = groupBulkWrite.txPacket();
    if (dxl_comm_result != COMM_SUCCESS) packetHandler->printTxRxResult(dxl_comm_result);

    // Clear bulkwrite parameter storage
    groupBulkWrite.clearParam();

    do
    {
      // Bulkread present position and LED status
      dxl_comm_result = groupBulkRead.txRxPacket();
      if (dxl_comm_result != COMM_SUCCESS) packetHandler->printTxRxResult(dxl_comm_result);

      // Check if groupbulkread data of Dynamixel#1 is available
      dxl_getdata_result = groupBulkRead.isAvailable(DXL1_ID, ADDR_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION, LEN_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION);
      if (dxl_getdata_result != true)
      {
        fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkRead getdata failed", DXL1_ID);
        return 0;
      }

      // Check if groupbulkread data of Dynamixel#2 is available
      dxl_getdata_result = groupBulkRead.isAvailable(DXL2_ID, ADDR_PRO_LED_RED, LEN_PRO_LED_RED);
      if (dxl_getdata_result != true)
      {
        fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkRead getdata failed", DXL2_ID);
        return 0;
      }

      // Get present position value
      dxl1_present_position = groupBulkRead.getData(DXL1_ID, ADDR_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION, LEN_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION);

      // Get LED value
      dxl2_led_value_read = groupBulkRead.getData(DXL2_ID, ADDR_PRO_LED_RED, LEN_PRO_LED_RED);

      printf("[ID:%03d] Present Position : %d \t [ID:%03d] LED Value: %d\n", DXL1_ID, dxl1_present_position, DXL2_ID, dxl2_led_value_read);

    }while(abs(dxl_goal_position[index] - dxl1_present_position) > DXL_MOVING_STATUS_THRESHOLD);

    // Change goal position
    if (index == 0)
    {
      index = 1;
    }
    else
    {
      index = 0;
    }
  }

  // Disable Dynamixel#1 Torque
  dxl_comm_result = packetHandler->write1ByteTxRx(portHandler, DXL1_ID, ADDR_PRO_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_DISABLE, &dxl_error);
  if (dxl_comm_result != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    packetHandler->printTxRxResult(dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if (dxl_error != 0)
  {
    packetHandler->printRxPacketError(dxl_error);
  }

  // Disable Dynamixel#2 Torque
  dxl_comm_result = packetHandler->write1ByteTxRx(portHandler, DXL2_ID, ADDR_PRO_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_DISABLE, &dxl_error);
  if (dxl_comm_result != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    packetHandler->printTxRxResult(dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if (dxl_error != 0)
  {
    packetHandler->printRxPacketError(dxl_error);
  }

  // Close port
  portHandler->closePort();

  return 0;
}

Details

#ifdef __linux__
#include <unistd.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <termios.h>
#elif defined(_WIN32) || defined(_WIN64)
#include <conio.h>
#endif

This source includes above to get key input interruption while the example is running. Actual functions for getting the input is described in a little below.

#include <stdlib.h>

The function abs() is in the example code, and it needs stdlib.h to be included.

#include <stdio.h>

The example shows Dynamixel status in sequence by the function printf(). So here stdio.h is needed.

#include "dynamixel_sdk.h"                                   // Uses Dynamixel SDK library

All libraries of Dynamixel SDK are linked with the header file dynamixel_sdk.h.

// Control table address
#define ADDR_PRO_TORQUE_ENABLE           562                  // Control table address is different in Dynamixel model
#define ADDR_PRO_LED_RED                 563
#define ADDR_PRO_GOAL_POSITION           596
#define ADDR_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION        611

// Data Byte Length
#define LEN_PRO_LED_RED                  1
#define LEN_PRO_GOAL_POSITION            2
#define LEN_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION         2

Dynamixel series have their own control tables: Addresses and Byte Length in each items. To control one of the items, its address (and length if necessary) is required. Find your requirements in http://support.robotis.com/.

// Protocol version
#define PROTOCOL_VERSION                2.0                 // See which protocol version is used in the Dynamixel

Dynamixel uses either or both protocols: Protocol 1.0 and Protocol 2.0. Choose one of the Protocol which is appropriate in the Dynamixel.

// Default setting
#define DXL1_ID                         1                   // Dynamixel#1 ID: 1
#define DXL2_ID                         2                   // Dynamixel#2 ID: 2
#define BAUDRATE                        1000000
#define DEVICENAME1                     "/dev/ttyUSB0"      // Check which port is being used on your controller

#define TORQUE_ENABLE                   1                   // Value for enabling the torque
#define TORQUE_DISABLE                  0                   // Value for disabling the torque
#define DXL_MINIMUM_POSITION_VALUE      -150000             // Dynamixel will rotate between this value
#define DXL_MAXIMUM_POSITION_VALUE      150000              // and this value (note that the Dynamixel would not move when the position value is out of movable range. Check e-manual about the range of the Dynamixel you use.)
#define DXL_MINIMUM_LED_VALUE           0                   // Dynamixel LED will light between this value
#define DXL_MAXIMUM_LED_VALUE           255                 // and this value
#define DXL_MOVING_STATUS_THRESHOLD     20                  // Dynamixel moving status threshold

#define ESC_ASCII_VALUE                 0x1b

Here we set some variables to let you freely change them and use them to run the example code.

As the document previously said in previous chapter, customize Dynamixel control table items, such as DXL_ID number, communication BAUDRATE, and the DEVICENAME, on your own terms of needs. In particular, BAUDRATE and DEVICENAME have systematical dependencies on your controller, so make clear what kind of communication method you will use.

The example uses two Dynamixels DXL1_ID, DXL2_ID connected with the port DEVICENAME.

Dynamixel basically needs the TORQUE_ENABLE to be rotating or give you its internal information. On the other hand, it doesn’t need torque enabled if you get your goal, so finally do TORQUE_DISABLE to prepare to the next sequence.

Since the Dynamixel has its own rotation range, it may shows malfunction if your request on your dynamixel is out of range. For example, Dynamixel MX-28 and Dynamixel PRO 54-200 has its rotatable range as 0 ~ 4028 and -250950 ~ 250950, each.

Dynamixel LED has its own range of value: 1 byte red LED for Dynamixel MX-28 and 1byte each on red, green, blue LED for Dynamixel PRO 54-200.

DXL_MOVING_STATUS_THRESHOLD acts as a criteria for verifying its rotation stopped.

int getch()
{
#ifdef __linux__
  struct termios oldt, newt;
  int ch;
  tcgetattr(STDIN_FILENO, &oldt);
  newt = oldt;
  newt.c_lflag &= ~(ICANON | ECHO);
  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &newt);
  ch = getchar();
  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &oldt);
  return ch;
#elif defined(_WIN32) || defined(_WIN64)
  return _getch();
#endif
}

int kbhit(void)
{
#ifdef __linux__
  struct termios oldt, newt;
  int ch;
  int oldf;

  tcgetattr(STDIN_FILENO, &oldt);
  newt = oldt;
  newt.c_lflag &= ~(ICANON | ECHO);
  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &newt);
  oldf = fcntl(STDIN_FILENO, F_GETFL, 0);
  fcntl(STDIN_FILENO, F_SETFL, oldf | O_NONBLOCK);

  ch = getchar();

  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &oldt);
  fcntl(STDIN_FILENO, F_SETFL, oldf);

  if (ch != EOF)
  {
    ungetc(ch, stdin);
    return 1;
  }

  return 0;
#elif defined(_WIN32) || defined(_WIN64)
  return _kbhit();
#endif
}

These functions accept the key inputs in terms of example action. The example codes mainly apply the function getch() rather than the function kbhit() to get information which key has been pressed.

int main()
{
  // Initialize PortHandler instance
  // Set the port path
  // Get methods and members of PortHandlerLinux or PortHandlerWindows
  dynamixel::PortHandler *portHandler = dynamixel::PortHandler::getPortHandler(DEVICENAME);

  // Initialize PacketHandler instance
  // Set the protocol version
  // Get methods and members of Protocol1PacketHandler or Protocol2PacketHandler
  dynamixel::PacketHandler *packetHandler = dynamixel::PacketHandler::getPacketHandler(PROTOCOL_VERSION);

  // Initialize GroupBulkWrite instance
  dynamixel::GroupBulkWrite groupBulkWrite(portHandler, packetHandler);

  // Initialize GroupBulkRead instance
  dynamixel::GroupBulkRead groupBulkRead(portHandler, packetHandler);

  int index = 0;
  int dxl_comm_result = COMM_TX_FAIL;             // Communication result
  bool dxl_addparam_result = false;                // addParam result
  bool dxl_getdata_result = false;                 // GetParam result
  int dxl_goal_position[2] = {DXL_MINIMUM_POSITION_VALUE, DXL_MAXIMUM_POSITION_VALUE};         // Goal position

  uint8_t dxl_error = 0;                          // Dynamixel error
  uint8_t dxl_led_value[2] = {0x00, 0xFF};        // Dynamixel LED value for write
  uint8_t param_goal_position[4];
  int32_t dxl1_present_position = 0;              // Present position
  uint8_t dxl2_led_value_read;                    // Dynamixel LED value for read

  // Open port
  if (portHandler->openPort())
  {
    printf("Succeeded to open the port!\n");
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Failed to open the port!\n");
    printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
    getch();
    return 0;
  }

  // Set port baudrate
  if (portHandler->setBaudRate(BAUDRATE))
  {
    printf("Succeeded to change the baudrate!\n");
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Failed to change the baudrate!\n");
    printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
    getch();
    return 0;
  }

  // Enable Dynamixel#1 Torque
  dxl_comm_result = packetHandler->write1ByteTxRx(portHandler, DXL1_ID, ADDR_PRO_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_ENABLE, &dxl_error);
  if (dxl_comm_result != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    packetHandler->printTxRxResult(dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if (dxl_error != 0)
  {
    packetHandler->printRxPacketError(dxl_error);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("DXL#%d has been successfully connected \n", DXL1_ID);
  }

  // Enable Dynamixel#2 Torque
  dxl_comm_result = packetHandler->write1ByteTxRx(portHandler, DXL2_ID, ADDR_PRO_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_ENABLE, &dxl_error);
  if (dxl_comm_result != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    packetHandler->printTxRxResult(dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if (dxl_error != 0)
  {
    packetHandler->printRxPacketError(dxl_error);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("DXL#%d has been successfully connected \n", DXL2_ID);
  }

  // Add parameter storage for Dynamixel#1 present position
  dxl_addparam_result = groupBulkRead.addParam(DXL1_ID, ADDR_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION, LEN_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION);
  if (dxl_addparam_result != true)
  {
    fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] grouBulkRead addparam failed", DXL1_ID);
    return 0;
  }

  // Add parameter storage for Dynamixel#2 LED value
  dxl_addparam_result = groupBulkRead.addParam(DXL2_ID, ADDR_PRO_LED_RED, LEN_PRO_LED_RED);
  if (dxl_addparam_result != true)
  {
    fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] grouBulkRead addparam failed", DXL2_ID);
    return 0;
  }

  while(1)
  {
    printf("Press any key to continue! (or press ESC to quit!)\n");
    if (getch() == ESC_ASCII_VALUE)
      break;

    // Allocate goal position value into byte array
    param_goal_position[0] = DXL_LOBYTE(DXL_LOWORD(dxl_goal_position[index]));
    param_goal_position[1] = DXL_HIBYTE(DXL_LOWORD(dxl_goal_position[index]));
    param_goal_position[2] = DXL_LOBYTE(DXL_HIWORD(dxl_goal_position[index]));
    param_goal_position[3] = DXL_HIBYTE(DXL_HIWORD(dxl_goal_position[index]));

    // Add parameter storage for Dynamixel#1 goal position
    dxl_addparam_result = groupBulkWrite.addParam(DXL1_ID, ADDR_PRO_GOAL_POSITION, LEN_PRO_GOAL_POSITION, param_goal_position);
    if (dxl_addparam_result != true)
    {
      fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkWrite addparam failed", DXL1_ID);
      return 0;
    }

    // Add parameter storage for Dynamixel#2 LED value
    dxl_addparam_result = groupBulkWrite.addParam(DXL2_ID, ADDR_PRO_LED_RED, LEN_PRO_LED_RED, &dxl_led_value[index]);
    if (dxl_addparam_result != true)
    {
      fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkWrite addparam failed", DXL2_ID);
      return 0;
    }

    // Bulkwrite goal position and LED value
    dxl_comm_result = groupBulkWrite.txPacket();
    if (dxl_comm_result != COMM_SUCCESS) packetHandler->printTxRxResult(dxl_comm_result);

    // Clear bulkwrite parameter storage
    groupBulkWrite.clearParam();

    do
    {
      // Bulkread present position and LED status
      dxl_comm_result = groupBulkRead.txRxPacket();
      if (dxl_comm_result != COMM_SUCCESS) packetHandler->printTxRxResult(dxl_comm_result);

      // Check if groupbulkread data of Dynamixel#1 is available
      dxl_getdata_result = groupBulkRead.isAvailable(DXL1_ID, ADDR_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION, LEN_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION);
      if (dxl_getdata_result != true)
      {
        fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkRead getdata failed", DXL1_ID);
        return 0;
      }

      // Check if groupbulkread data of Dynamixel#2 is available
      dxl_getdata_result = groupBulkRead.isAvailable(DXL2_ID, ADDR_PRO_LED_RED, LEN_PRO_LED_RED);
      if (dxl_getdata_result != true)
      {
        fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkRead getdata failed", DXL2_ID);
        return 0;
      }

      // Get present position value
      dxl1_present_position = groupBulkRead.getData(DXL1_ID, ADDR_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION, LEN_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION);

      // Get LED value
      dxl2_led_value_read = groupBulkRead.getData(DXL2_ID, ADDR_PRO_LED_RED, LEN_PRO_LED_RED);

      printf("[ID:%03d] Present Position : %d \t [ID:%03d] LED Value: %d\n", DXL1_ID, dxl1_present_position, DXL2_ID, dxl2_led_value_read);

    }while(abs(dxl_goal_position[index] - dxl1_present_position) > DXL_MOVING_STATUS_THRESHOLD);

    // Change goal position
    if (index == 0)
    {
      index = 1;
    }
    else
    {
      index = 0;
    }
  }

  // Disable Dynamixel#1 Torque
  dxl_comm_result = packetHandler->write1ByteTxRx(portHandler, DXL1_ID, ADDR_PRO_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_DISABLE, &dxl_error);
  if (dxl_comm_result != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    packetHandler->printTxRxResult(dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if (dxl_error != 0)
  {
    packetHandler->printRxPacketError(dxl_error);
  }

  // Disable Dynamixel#2 Torque
  dxl_comm_result = packetHandler->write1ByteTxRx(portHandler, DXL2_ID, ADDR_PRO_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_DISABLE, &dxl_error);
  if (dxl_comm_result != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    packetHandler->printTxRxResult(dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if (dxl_error != 0)
  {
    packetHandler->printRxPacketError(dxl_error);
  }

  // Close port
  portHandler->closePort();

  return 0;
}

In main() function, the codes call actual functions for Dynamixel control.

  // Initialize PortHandler instance
  // Set the port path
  // Get methods and members of PortHandlerLinux or PortHandlerWindows
  dynamixel::PortHandler *portHandler = dynamixel::PortHandler::getPortHandler(DEVICENAME);

getPortHandler() function sets port path as DEVICENAME, and prepare an appropriate dynamixel::PortHandler in controller OS automatically.

  // Initialize PacketHandler instance
  // Set the protocol version
  // Get methods and members of Protocol1PacketHandler or Protocol2PacketHandler
  dynamixel::PacketHandler *packetHandler = dynamixel::PacketHandler::getPacketHandler(PROTOCOL_VERSION);

getPacketHandler() function sets the methods for packet construction by choosing the PROTOCOL_VERSION.

  // Initialize GroupBulkWrite instance
  dynamixel::GroupBulkWrite groupBulkWrite(portHandler, packetHandler);

Methods of groupBulkWrite instance deals simultaneously with more than one Dynamixel through the port which the portHandler handles, building packets by the methods of packetHandler instance.

  // Initialize GroupBulkRead instance
  dynamixel::GroupBulkRead groupBulkRead(portHandler, packetHandler);

Methods of groupBulkRead instance deals simultaneously with more than one Dynamixel through the port which the portHandler handles, building packets by the methods of packetHandler instance.

  int index = 0;
  int dxl_comm_result = COMM_TX_FAIL;             // Communication result
  bool dxl_addparam_result = false;                // addParam result
  bool dxl_getdata_result = false;                 // GetParam result
  int dxl_goal_position[2] = {DXL_MINIMUM_POSITION_VALUE, DXL_MAXIMUM_POSITION_VALUE};         // Goal position

  uint8_t dxl_error = 0;                          // Dynamixel error
  uint8_t dxl_led_value[2] = {0x00, 0xFF};        // Dynamixel LED value for write
  uint8_t param_goal_position[4];
  int32_t dxl1_present_position = 0;              // Present position
  uint8_t dxl2_led_value_read;                    // Dynamixel LED value for read

index variable points the direction to where the Dynamixel should be rotated.

dxl_comm_result indicates which error has been occurred during packet communication.

dxl_addparam_result indicates the result of parameter addition used for sync/bulk related functions

dxl_getdata_result indicates the result of data reception used for sync/bulk related functions

dxl_goal_position stores goal points of Dynamixel rotation.

dxl_error shows the internal error in Dynamixel.

dxl_led_value stores LED values of Dynamixel.

param_goal_position becomes filled with couple of goal position values to write on each Dynamixel.

dxl1_present_position views where now Dynamixel DXL1_ID points out.

dxl2_moving views whether the Dynamixel is stopped.

  // Open port
  if (portHandler->openPort())
  {
    printf("Succeeded to open the port!\n");
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Failed to open the port!\n");
    printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
    getch();
    return 0;
  }

First, controller opens the port to do serial communication with the Dynamixel. If it fails to open the port, the example will be terminated.

  // Set port baudrate
  if (portHandler->setBaudRate(BAUDRATE))
  {
    printf("Succeeded to change the baudrate!\n");
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Failed to change the baudrate!\n");
    printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
    getch();
    return 0;
  }

Secondly, the controller sets the communication BAUDRATE at the port opened previously.

  // Enable Dynamixel#1 Torque
  dxl_comm_result = packetHandler->write1ByteTxRx(portHandler, DXL1_ID, ADDR_PRO_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_ENABLE, &dxl_error);
  if (dxl_comm_result != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    packetHandler->printTxRxResult(dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if (dxl_error != 0)
  {
    packetHandler->printRxPacketError(dxl_error);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("DXL#%d has been successfully connected \n", DXL1_ID);
  }

  // Enable Dynamixel#2 Torque
  dxl_comm_result = packetHandler->write1ByteTxRx(portHandler, DXL2_ID, ADDR_PRO_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_ENABLE, &dxl_error);
  if (dxl_comm_result != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    packetHandler->printTxRxResult(dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if (dxl_error != 0)
  {
    packetHandler->printRxPacketError(dxl_error);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("DXL#%d has been successfully connected \n", DXL2_ID);
  }

As mentioned in the document, above code enables each Dynamixel`s torque to set their status as being ready to move.

dynamixel::PacketHandler::write1ByteTxRx() function orders to the #DXL_ID Dynamixel through the port which the portHandler handles, writing 1 byte of TORQUE_ENABLE value to ADDR_PRO_TORQUE_ENABLE address. Then, it receives the dxl_error. The function returns 0 if no communication error has been occurred.

  // Add parameter storage for Dynamixel#1 present position
  dxl_addparam_result = groupBulkRead.addParam(DXL1_ID, ADDR_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION, LEN_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION);
  if (dxl_addparam_result != true)
  {
    fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] grouBulkRead addparam failed", DXL1_ID);
    return 0;
  }

  // Add parameter storage for Dynamixel#2 LED value
  dxl_addparam_result = groupBulkRead.addParam(DXL2_ID, ADDR_PRO_LED_RED, LEN_PRO_LED_RED);
  if (dxl_addparam_result != true)
  {
    fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] grouBulkRead addparam failed", DXL2_ID);
    return 0;
  }

dynamixel::GroupBulkRead::addParam() function stores the Dynamixel ID and address ADDR_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION or ADDR_PRO_LED_RED, byte length LEN_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION or LEN_PRO_LED_RED of required data to the bulkread target Dynamixel list.

  while(1)
  {
    printf("Press any key to continue! (or press ESC to quit!)\n");
    if (getch() == ESC_ASCII_VALUE)
      break;

    // Allocate goal position value into byte array
    param_goal_position[0] = DXL_LOBYTE(DXL_LOWORD(dxl_goal_position[index]));
    param_goal_position[1] = DXL_HIBYTE(DXL_LOWORD(dxl_goal_position[index]));
    param_goal_position[2] = DXL_LOBYTE(DXL_HIWORD(dxl_goal_position[index]));
    param_goal_position[3] = DXL_HIBYTE(DXL_HIWORD(dxl_goal_position[index]));

    // Add parameter storage for Dynamixel#1 goal position
    dxl_addparam_result = groupBulkWrite.addParam(DXL1_ID, ADDR_PRO_GOAL_POSITION, LEN_PRO_GOAL_POSITION, param_goal_position);
    if (dxl_addparam_result != true)
    {
      fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkWrite addparam failed", DXL1_ID);
      return 0;
    }

    // Add parameter storage for Dynamixel#2 LED value
    dxl_addparam_result = groupBulkWrite.addParam(DXL2_ID, ADDR_PRO_LED_RED, LEN_PRO_LED_RED, &dxl_led_value[index]);
    if (dxl_addparam_result != true)
    {
      fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkWrite addparam failed", DXL2_ID);
      return 0;
    }

    // Bulkwrite goal position and LED value
    dxl_comm_result = groupBulkWrite.txPacket();
    if (dxl_comm_result != COMM_SUCCESS) packetHandler->printTxRxResult(dxl_comm_result);

    // Clear bulkwrite parameter storage
    groupBulkWrite.clearParam();

    do
    {
      // Bulkread present position and LED status
      dxl_comm_result = groupBulkRead.txRxPacket();
      if (dxl_comm_result != COMM_SUCCESS) packetHandler->printTxRxResult(dxl_comm_result);

      // Check if groupbulkread data of Dynamixel#1 is available
      dxl_getdata_result = groupBulkRead.isAvailable(DXL1_ID, ADDR_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION, LEN_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION);
      if (dxl_getdata_result != true)
      {
        fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkRead getdata failed", DXL1_ID);
        return 0;
      }

      // Check if groupbulkread data of Dynamixel#2 is available
      dxl_getdata_result = groupBulkRead.isAvailable(DXL2_ID, ADDR_PRO_LED_RED, LEN_PRO_LED_RED);
      if (dxl_getdata_result != true)
      {
        fprintf(stderr, "[ID:%03d] groupBulkRead getdata failed", DXL2_ID);
        return 0;
      }

      // Get present position value
      dxl1_present_position = groupBulkRead.getData(DXL1_ID, ADDR_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION, LEN_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION);

      // Get LED value
      dxl2_led_value_read = groupBulkRead.getData(DXL2_ID, ADDR_PRO_LED_RED, LEN_PRO_LED_RED);

      printf("[ID:%03d] Present Position : %d \t [ID:%03d] LED Value: %d\n", DXL1_ID, dxl1_present_position, DXL2_ID, dxl2_led_value_read);

    }while(abs(dxl_goal_position[index] - dxl1_present_position) > DXL_MOVING_STATUS_THRESHOLD);

    // Change goal position
    if (index == 0)
    {
      index = 1;
    }
    else
    {
      index = 0;
    }
  }

During while() loop, the controller writes and reads each Dynamixel position or moving status through packet transmission/reception(Tx/Rx).

To continue their rotation, press any key except ESC.

From param_goal_position[0] to param_goal_position[1] becomes filled with each from low-low-byte to high-high-byte part of dxl_goal_position by using predefined function DXL_LOBYTE() and DXL_HIBYTE(), DXL_LOWORD() and DXL_HIWORD().

dynamixel::GroupBulkWrite::addParam() function stores the Dynamixel ID and its goal position param_goal_position or red LED value dxl_led_value to the bulkwrite target Dynamixel list.

dynamixel::GroupBulkWrite::txPacket() function orders to the Dynamixel #DXL1_ID and #DXL2_ID at the same time through the port which the portHandler handles, making it possible to write data bytes to different address. (In this example, LEN_PRO_GOAL_POSITION bytes of the values to the address ADDR_PRO_GOAL_POSITION and LEN_PRO_LED_RED bytes of the values to the address ADDR_PRO_LED_RED, each.) The function returns 0 if no communication error has been occurred.

dynamixel::GroupBulkWrite::clearParam() function clears the Dynamixel list of groupsyncwrite.

dynamixel::GroupBulkRead::txRxPacket() function orders to the Dynamixel #DXL1_ID and #DXL2_ID at the same time through the port which the portHandler handles, making it possible to require data bytes from different address. (In this example, LEN_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION bytes of the values to the address ADDR_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION and LEN_PRO_LED_RED bytes of the values to the address ADDR_PRO_LED_RED, each.) The function returns 0 if no communication error has been occurred.

dynamixel::GroupBulkRead::isAvailable() function checks if available data is in the groupbulkread data storage. The function returns false if no data is available in the storage.

dynamixel::GroupBulkRead::getData() function pop the data received by GroupBulkRead::TxRxPacket() function out. In the example, it stores LEN_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION byte data got from ADDR_PRO_PRESENT_POSITION address of DXL1_ID Dynamixel and LEN_PRO_LED_RED byte data got from ADDR_PRO_LED_RED address of DXL2_ID Dynamixel, each.

dynamixel::GroupBulkRead::clearParam() function clears the Dynamixel list of groupbulkread.

Reading their present position will be ended when absolute value of (dxl_goal_position[index] - dxl1_present_position) becomes smaller then DXL_MOVING_STATUS_THRESHOLD.

At last, it changes their direction to the counter-wise and waits for extra key input.

  // Disable Dynamixel#1 Torque
  dxl_comm_result = packetHandler->write1ByteTxRx(portHandler, DXL1_ID, ADDR_PRO_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_DISABLE, &dxl_error);
  if (dxl_comm_result != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    packetHandler->printTxRxResult(dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if (dxl_error != 0)
  {
    packetHandler->printRxPacketError(dxl_error);
  }

  // Disable Dynamixel#2 Torque
  dxl_comm_result = packetHandler->write1ByteTxRx(portHandler, DXL2_ID, ADDR_PRO_TORQUE_ENABLE, TORQUE_DISABLE, &dxl_error);
  if (dxl_comm_result != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    packetHandler->printTxRxResult(dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if (dxl_error != 0)
  {
    packetHandler->printRxPacketError(dxl_error);
  }

The controller frees the Dynamixels to be idle.

dynamixel::PacketHandler::write1ByteTxRx() function orders to the #DXL_ID Dynamixel through the port which the portHandler handles, writing 1 byte of TORQUE_DISABLE value to ADDR_PRO_TORQUE_ENABLE address. Then, it receives the dxl_error. The function returns 0 if no communication error has been occurred.

  // Close port
  portHandler->closePort();

  return 0;

Finally, port becomes disposed.