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Sample Code

C Protocol 1.0

C Reset Protocol 1.0

/*
* reset.c
*
*  Created on: 2016. 5. 16.
*      Author: Leon Ryu Woon Jung
*/

//
// *********     Factory Reset Example      *********
//
//
// Available Dynamixel model on this example : All models using Protocol 1.0
// This example is designed for using a Dynamixel MX-28, and an USB2DYNAMIXEL.
// To use another Dynamixel model, such as X series, see their details in E-Manual(support.robotis.com) and edit below "#define"d variables yourself.
// Be sure that Dynamixel PRO properties are already set as %% ID : 1 / Baudnum : 1 (Baudrate : 1000000 [1M])
//

// Be aware that:
// This example resets all properties of Dynamixel to default values, such as %% ID : 1 / Baudnum : 34 (Baudrate : 57600)
//

#ifdef __linux__
#include <unistd.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <termios.h>
#elif defined(_WIN32) || defined(_WIN64)
#include <conio.h>
#endif

#include <stdio.h>
#include "dynamixel_sdk.h"                                   // Uses Dynamixel SDK library

// Control table address
#define ADDR_MX_BAUDRATE                4                   // Control table address is different in Dynamixel model

// Protocol version
#define PROTOCOL_VERSION                1.0                 // See which protocol version is used in the Dynamixel

// Default setting
#define DXL_ID                          1                   // Dynamixel ID: 1
#define BAUDRATE                        1000000
#define DEVICENAME                      "/dev/ttyUSB0"      // Check which port is being used on your controller
                                                            // ex) Windows: "COM1"   Linux: "/dev/ttyUSB0"

#define FACTORYRST_DEFAULTBAUDRATE      57600               // Dynamixel baudrate set by factoryreset
#define NEW_BAUDNUM                     1                   // New baudnum to recover Dynamixel baudrate as it was
#define OPERATION_MODE                  0x00                // Mode is unavailable in Protocol 1.0 Reset

#define TORQUE_ENABLE                   1                   // Value for enabling the torque
#define TORQUE_DISABLE                  0                   // Value for disabling the torque

int getch()
{
#ifdef __linux__
  struct termios oldt, newt;
  int ch;
  tcgetattr(STDIN_FILENO, &oldt);
  newt = oldt;
  newt.c_lflag &= ~(ICANON | ECHO);
  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &newt);
  ch = getchar();
  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &oldt);
  return ch;
#elif defined(_WIN32) || defined(_WIN64)
  return _getch();
#endif
}

int kbhit(void)
{
#ifdef __linux__
  struct termios oldt, newt;
  int ch;
  int oldf;

  tcgetattr(STDIN_FILENO, &oldt);
  newt = oldt;
  newt.c_lflag &= ~(ICANON | ECHO);
  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &newt);
  oldf = fcntl(STDIN_FILENO, F_GETFL, 0);
  fcntl(STDIN_FILENO, F_SETFL, oldf | O_NONBLOCK);

  ch = getchar();

  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &oldt);
  fcntl(STDIN_FILENO, F_SETFL, oldf);

  if (ch != EOF)
  {
    ungetc(ch, stdin);
    return 1;
  }

  return 0;
#elif defined(_WIN32) || defined(_WIN64)
  return _kbhit();
#endif
}

void msecSleep(int waitTime)
{
#ifdef __linux__
    usleep(waitTime * 1000);
#elif defined(_WIN32) || defined(_WIN64)
    Sleep(waitTime);
#endif
}

int main()
{
  // Initialize PortHandler Structs
  // Set the port path
  // Get methods and members of PortHandlerLinux or PortHandlerWindows
  int port_num = portHandler(DEVICENAME);

  // Initialize PacketHandler Structs
  packetHandler();

  int dxl_comm_result = COMM_TX_FAIL;             // Communication result

  uint8_t dxl_error = 0;                          // Dynamixel error
  uint8_t dxl_baudnum_read;                       // Read baudnum

  // Open port
  if (openPort(port_num))
  {
    printf("Succeeded to open the port!\n");
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Failed to open the port!\n");
    printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
    getch();
    return 0;
  }

  // Set port baudrate
  if (setBaudRate(port_num, BAUDRATE))
  {
    printf("Succeeded to change the baudrate!\n");
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Failed to change the baudrate!\n");
    printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
    getch();
    return 0;
  }

  // Read present baudrate of the controller
  printf("Now the controller baudrate is : %d\n", getBaudRate(port_num));

  // Try factoryreset
  printf("[ID:%03d] Try factoryreset : ", DXL_ID);
  factoryReset(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, OPERATION_MODE);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    printf("Aborted\n");
    printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
    return 0;
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }

  // Wait for reset
  printf("Wait for reset...\n");
  msecSleep(2000);

  printf("[ID:%03d] factoryReset Success!\n", DXL_ID);

  // Set controller baudrate to dxl default baudrate
  if (setBaudRate(port_num, FACTORYRST_DEFAULTBAUDRATE))
  {
    printf("Succeed to change the controller baudrate to : %d\n", FACTORYRST_DEFAULTBAUDRATE);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Failed to change the controller baudrate\n");
    printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
    getch();
    return 0;
  }

  // Read Dynamixel baudnum
  dxl_baudnum_read = read1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, ADDR_MX_BAUDRATE);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("[ID:%03d] Dynamixel baudnum is now : %d\n", DXL_ID, dxl_baudnum_read);
  }

  // Write new baudnum
  write1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, ADDR_MX_BAUDRATE, NEW_BAUDNUM);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("[ID:%03d] Set Dynamixel baudnum to : %d\n", DXL_ID, NEW_BAUDNUM);
  }

  // Set port baudrate to BAUDRATE
  if (setBaudRate(port_num, BAUDRATE))
  {
    printf("Succeed to change the controller baudrate to : %d\n", BAUDRATE);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Failed to change the controller baudrate\n");
    printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
    getch();
    return 0;
  }

  msecSleep(200);

  // Read Dynamixel baudnum
  dxl_baudnum_read = read1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, ADDR_MX_BAUDRATE);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("[ID:%03d] Dynamixel Baudnum is now : %d\n", DXL_ID, dxl_baudnum_read);
  }

  // Close port
  closePort(port_num);

  return 0;
}

#ifdef __linux__
#include <unistd.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <termios.h>
#elif defined(_WIN32) || defined(_WIN64)
#include <conio.h>
#endif

This source includes above to get key input interruption while the example is running. Actual functions for getting the input is described in a little below.

#include <stdio.h>

The example shows Dynamixel status in sequence by the function printf(). So here stdio.h is needed.

#include "dynamixel_sdk.h"                                   // Uses Dynamixel SDK library

All libraries of Dynamixel SDK are linked with the header file dynamixel_sdk.h.

// Control table address
#define ADDR_MX_BAUDRATE                4                   // Control table address is different in Dynamixel model

Dynamixel series have their own control tables: Addresses and Byte Length in each items. To control one of the items, its address (and length if necessary) is required. Find your requirements in http://support.robotis.com/.

// Protocol version
#define PROTOCOL_VERSION                1.0                 // See which protocol version is used in the Dynamixel

Dynamixel uses either or both protocols: Protocol 1.0 and Protocol 2.0. Choose one of the Protocol which is appropriate in the Dynamixel.

// Default setting
#define DXL_ID                          1                   // Dynamixel ID: 1
#define BAUDRATE                        1000000
#define DEVICENAME                      "/dev/ttyUSB0"      // Check which port is being used on your controller
                                                            // ex) Windows: "COM1"   Linux: "/dev/ttyUSB0"

#define FACTORYRST_DEFAULTBAUDRATE      57600               // Dynamixel baudrate set by factoryreset
#define NEW_BAUDNUM                     1                   // New baudnum to recover Dynamixel baudrate as it was
#define OPERATION_MODE                  0x00                // Mode is unavailable in Protocol 1.0 Reset

Here we set some variables to let you freely change them and use them to run the example code.

As the document previously said in previous chapter, customize Dynamixel control table items, such as DXL_ID number, communication BAUDRATE, and the DEVICENAME, on your own terms of needs. In particular, BAUDRATE and DEVICENAME have systematical dependencies on your controller, so make clear what kind of communication method you will use.

Since the factory reset recovers the Dynamixel control table items to the original state, the baudrate of controller serial port should be set to its changed baudrate(FACTORYRST_DEFAULTBAUDRATE : 57600 bps) as well. After that, controller sets its baudrate to the value (1000000 bps : NEW_BAUDNUM = 1) before factory reset.

In Protocol 1.0, only one mode that resets whole items is avaiable.

int getch()
{
#ifdef __linux__
  struct termios oldt, newt;
  int ch;
  tcgetattr(STDIN_FILENO, &oldt);
  newt = oldt;
  newt.c_lflag &= ~(ICANON | ECHO);
  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &newt);
  ch = getchar();
  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &oldt);
  return ch;
#elif defined(_WIN32) || defined(_WIN64)
  return _getch();
#endif
}

int kbhit(void)
{
#ifdef __linux__
  struct termios oldt, newt;
  int ch;
  int oldf;

  tcgetattr(STDIN_FILENO, &oldt);
  newt = oldt;
  newt.c_lflag &= ~(ICANON | ECHO);
  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &newt);
  oldf = fcntl(STDIN_FILENO, F_GETFL, 0);
  fcntl(STDIN_FILENO, F_SETFL, oldf | O_NONBLOCK);

  ch = getchar();

  tcsetattr(STDIN_FILENO, TCSANOW, &oldt);
  fcntl(STDIN_FILENO, F_SETFL, oldf);

  if (ch != EOF)
  {
    ungetc(ch, stdin);
    return 1;
  }

  return 0;
#elif defined(_WIN32) || defined(_WIN64)
  return _kbhit();
#endif
}

These functions accept the key inputs in terms of example action. The example codes mainly apply the function getch() rather than the function kbhit() to get information which key has been pressed.

void msecSleep(int waitTime)
{
#ifdef __linux__
    usleep(waitTime * 1000);
#elif defined(_WIN32) || defined(_WIN64)
    Sleep(waitTime);
#endif
}

msecSleep() function halt the computational process in which this function is used.

int main()
{
  // Initialize PortHandler Structs
  // Set the port path
  // Get methods and members of PortHandlerLinux or PortHandlerWindows
  int port_num = portHandler(DEVICENAME);

  // Initialize PacketHandler Structs
  packetHandler();

  int dxl_comm_result = COMM_TX_FAIL;             // Communication result

  uint8_t dxl_error = 0;                          // Dynamixel error
  uint8_t dxl_baudnum_read;                       // Read baudnum

  // Open port
  if (openPort(port_num))
  {
    printf("Succeeded to open the port!\n");
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Failed to open the port!\n");
    printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
    getch();
    return 0;
  }

  // Set port baudrate
  if (setBaudRate(port_num, BAUDRATE))
  {
    printf("Succeeded to change the baudrate!\n");
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Failed to change the baudrate!\n");
    printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
    getch();
    return 0;
  }

  // Read present baudrate of the controller
  printf("Now the controller baudrate is : %d\n", getBaudRate(port_num));

  // Try factoryreset
  printf("[ID:%03d] Try factoryreset : ", DXL_ID);
  factoryReset(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, OPERATION_MODE);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    printf("Aborted\n");
    printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
    return 0;
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }

  // Wait for reset
  printf("Wait for reset...\n");
  msecSleep(2000);

  printf("[ID:%03d] factoryReset Success!\n", DXL_ID);

  // Set controller baudrate to dxl default baudrate
  if (setBaudRate(port_num, FACTORYRST_DEFAULTBAUDRATE))
  {
    printf("Succeed to change the controller baudrate to : %d\n", FACTORYRST_DEFAULTBAUDRATE);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Failed to change the controller baudrate\n");
    printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
    getch();
    return 0;
  }

  // Read Dynamixel baudnum
  dxl_baudnum_read = read1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, ADDR_MX_BAUDRATE);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("[ID:%03d] Dynamixel baudnum is now : %d\n", DXL_ID, dxl_baudnum_read);
  }

  // Write new baudnum
  write1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, ADDR_MX_BAUDRATE, NEW_BAUDNUM);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("[ID:%03d] Set Dynamixel baudnum to : %d\n", DXL_ID, NEW_BAUDNUM);
  }

  // Set port baudrate to BAUDRATE
  if (setBaudRate(port_num, BAUDRATE))
  {
    printf("Succeed to change the controller baudrate to : %d\n", BAUDRATE);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Failed to change the controller baudrate\n");
    printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
    getch();
    return 0;
  }

  msecSleep(200);

  // Read Dynamixel baudnum
  dxl_baudnum_read = read1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, ADDR_MX_BAUDRATE);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("[ID:%03d] Dynamixel Baudnum is now : %d\n", DXL_ID, dxl_baudnum_read);
  }

  // Close port
  closePort(port_num);

  return 0;
}

In main() function, the codes call actual functions for Dynamixel control.


  // Initialize PortHandler Structs
  // Set the port path
  // Get methods and members of PortHandlerLinux or PortHandlerWindows
  int port_num = portHandler(DEVICENAME);

portHandler() function sets port path as DEVICENAME and get port_num, and prepares an appropriate functions for port control in controller OS automatically. port_num would be used in many functions in the body of the code to specify the port for use.

  // Initialize PacketHandler Structs
  packetHandler();

packetHandler() function initializes parameters used for packet construction and packet storing.

  int dxl_comm_result = COMM_TX_FAIL;             // Communication result

  uint8_t dxl_error = 0;                          // Dynamixel error
  uint8_t dxl_baudnum_read;                       // Read baudnum

dxl_comm_result indicates which error has been occurred during packet communication.

dxl_error shows the internal error in Dynamixel.

dxl_baudnum_read keeps Dynamixel baudrate.

  // Open port
  if (openPort(port_num))
  {
      printf("Succeeded to open the port!\n");
  }
  else
  {
      printf("Failed to open the port!\n");
      printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
      _getch();
      return 0;
  }

First, controller opens #port_num port to do serial communication with the Dynamixel. If it fails to open the port, the example will be terminated.

  // Set port baudrate
  if (setBaudRate(port_num, BAUDRATE))
  {
      printf("Succeeded to change the baudrate!\n");
  }
  else
  {
      printf("Failed to change the baudrate!\n");
      printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
      _getch();
      return 0;
  }

Secondly, the controller sets the communication BAUDRATE at #port_num port opened previously.

  // Read present baudrate of the controller
  printf("Now the controller baudrate is : %d\n", getBaudRate(port_num));

getBaudRate() function shows which baudrate is used in #port_num port of the controller.

  factoryReset(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, OPERATION_MODE);

factoryReset() function orders to the #DXL_ID Dynamixel through #port_num port, executing it to be reset as OPERATION_MODE format. The function checks Tx/Rx result and receives Hardware error. getLastTxRxResult() function and getLastRxPacketError() function get either, and then printTxRxResult() function and printRxPacketError() function show results on the console window if any communication error or Hardware error has been occurred.

  // Wait for reset
  printf("Wait for reset...\n");
  msecSleep(2000);

Factory reset takes few seconds.

  // Set controller baudrate to dxl default baudrate
  if (setBaudRate(port_num, FACTORYRST_DEFAULTBAUDRATE))
  {
      printf("Succeed to change the controller baudrate to : %d\n", FACTORYRST_DEFAULTBAUDRATE);
  }
  else
  {
      printf("Failed to change the controller baudrate\n");
      printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
      _getch();
      return 0;
  }

Controller should change its baudrate itself to do the communication with initialized Dynamixel.

  // Read Dynamixel baudnum
  dxl_baudnum_read = read1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, ADDR_MX_BAUDRATE);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("[ID:%03d] Dynamixel baudnum is now : %d\n", DXL_ID, dxl_baudnum_read);
  }

This shows that reconnection between controller and Dynamixel is happened by adjusting the baudrate.

  // Write new baudnum
  write1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, ADDR_MX_BAUDRATE, NEW_BAUDNUM);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("[ID:%03d] Set Dynamixel baudnum to : %d\n", DXL_ID, NEW_BAUDNUM);
  }

To make the Dynamixel into previous condition, write1ByteTxRx() function orders to the #DXL_ID Dynamixel in PROTOCOL_VERSION communication protocol through #port_num port, writing 1 byte of TORQUE_ENABLE value to ADDR_MX_TORQUE_ENABLE address. The function checks Tx/Rx result and receives Hardware error. getLastTxRxResult() function and getLastRxPacketError() function get either, and then printTxRxResult() function and printRxPacketError() function show results on the console window if any communication error or Hardware error has been occurred.

  // Set port baudrate to BAUDRATE
  if (setBaudRate(port_num, BAUDRATE))
  {
    printf("Succeed to change the controller baudrate to : %d\n", BAUDRATE);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("Failed to change the controller baudrate\n");
    printf("Press any key to terminate...\n");
    getch();
    return 0;
  }

  msecSleep(200);

  // Read Dynamixel baudnum
  dxl_baudnum_read = read1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, ADDR_MX_BAUDRATE);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }
  else
  {
    printf("[ID:%03d] Dynamixel Baudnum is now : %d\n", DXL_ID, dxl_baudnum_read);
  }

These changes controller baudrate and verify that the Dynamixel has been successfully set into previous state.

  // Close port
  closePort(port_num);

  return 0;

Finally, port becomes disposed.