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Sample Code

CSharp Protocol 2.0

CSharp Reset Protocol 2.0

/*
 * FactoryReset.cs
 *
 *  Created on: 2016. 6. 20.
 *      Author: Ryu Woon Jung (Leon)
 */

//
// *********     Factory Reset Example      *********
//
//
// Available Dynamixel model on this example : All models using Protocol 2.0
// This example is designed for using a Dynamixel PRO 54-200, and an USB2DYNAMIXEL.
// To use another Dynamixel model, such as X series, see their details in E-Manual(support.robotis.com) and edit below variables yourself.
// Be sure that Dynamixel PRO properties are already set as %% ID : 1 / Baudnum : 3 (Baudrate : 1000000 [1M])
//

// Be aware that:
// This example resets all properties of Dynamixel to default values, such as %% ID : 1 / Baudnum : 1 (Baudrate : 57600)
//

using System;
using System.Threading;
using dynamixel_sdk;

namespace factory_reset
{
  class FactoryReset
  {
    // Control table address
    public const int ADDR_PRO_BAUDRATE  = 8;                // Control table address is different in Dynamixel model

    // Protocol version
    public const int PROTOCOL_VERSION   = 2;                // See which protocol version is used in the Dynamixel

    // Default setting
    public const int DXL_ID             = 1;                // Dynamixel ID: 1
    public const int BAUDRATE           = 1000000;
    public const string DEVICENAME      = "/dev/ttyUSB0";   // Check which port is being used on your controller
                                                            // ex) "COM1"   Linux: "/dev/ttyUSB0"

    public const int FACTORYRST_DEFAULTBAUDRATE = 57600;    // Dynamixel baudrate set by factoryreset
    public const int NEW_BAUDNUM        = 3;                // New baudnum to recover Dynamixel baudrate as it was
    public const byte OPERATION_MODE    = 0x01;             // 0xFF : reset all values
                                                            // 0x01 : reset all values except ID
                                                            // 0x02 : reset all values except ID and baudrate

    public const int COMM_SUCCESS       = 0;                // Communication Success result value
    public const int COMM_TX_FAIL       = -1001;            // Communication Tx Failed

    static void Main(string[] args)
    {
      // Initialize PortHandler Structs
      // Set the port path
      // Get methods and members of PortHandlerLinux or PortHandlerWindows
      int port_num = dynamixel.portHandler(DEVICENAME);

      // Initialize PacketHandler Structs
      dynamixel.packetHandler();

      int dxl_comm_result = COMM_TX_FAIL;                  // Communication result

      byte dxl_error = 0;                                  // Dynamixel error
      byte dxl_baudnum_read;                               // Read baudnum

      // Open port
      if (dynamixel.openPort(port_num))
      {
        Console.WriteLine("Succeeded to open the port!");
      }
      else
      {
        Console.WriteLine("Failed to open the port!");
        Console.WriteLine("Press any key to terminate...");
        Console.ReadKey();
        return;
      }

      // Set port baudrate
      if (dynamixel.setBaudRate(port_num, BAUDRATE))
      {
        Console.WriteLine("Succeeded to change the baudrate!");
      }
      else
      {
        Console.WriteLine("Failed to change the baudrate!");
        Console.WriteLine("Press any key to terminate...");
        Console.ReadKey();
        return;
      }


      // Read present baudrate of the controller
      Console.WriteLine("Now the controller baudrate is : {0}", dynamixel.getBaudRate(port_num));

      // Try factoryreset
      Console.WriteLine("[ID: {0}] Try factoryreset : ", DXL_ID);
      dynamixel.factoryReset(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, OPERATION_MODE);
      if ((dxl_comm_result = dynamixel.getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
      {
        Console.WriteLine("Aborted");
        dynamixel.printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
        return;
      }
      else if ((dxl_error = dynamixel.getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
      {
        dynamixel.printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
      }

      // Wait for reset
      Console.WriteLine("Wait for reset...");
      Thread.Sleep(2000);

      Console.WriteLine("[ID: {0}] factoryReset Success!", DXL_ID);

      // Set controller baudrate to dxl default baudrate
      if (dynamixel.setBaudRate(port_num, FACTORYRST_DEFAULTBAUDRATE))
      {
        Console.WriteLine("Succeed to change the controller baudrate to : {0}", FACTORYRST_DEFAULTBAUDRATE);
      }
      else
      {
        Console.WriteLine("Failed to change the controller baudrate");
        Console.WriteLine("Press any key to terminate...");
        Console.ReadKey();
        return;
      }

      // Read Dynamixel baudnum
      dxl_baudnum_read = dynamixel.read1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, ADDR_PRO_BAUDRATE);
      if ((dxl_comm_result = dynamixel.getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
      {
        dynamixel.printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
      }
      else if ((dxl_error = dynamixel.getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
      {
        dynamixel.printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
      }
      else
      {
        Console.WriteLine("[ID: {0}] Dynamixel baudnum is now : {1}", DXL_ID, dxl_baudnum_read);
      }

      // Write new baudnum
      dynamixel.write1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, ADDR_PRO_BAUDRATE, NEW_BAUDNUM);
      if ((dxl_comm_result = dynamixel.getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
      {
        dynamixel.printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
      }
      else if ((dxl_error = dynamixel.getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
      {
        dynamixel.printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
      }
      else
      {
        Console.WriteLine("[ID: {0}] Set Dynamixel baudnum to : {1}", DXL_ID, NEW_BAUDNUM);
      }

      // Set port baudrate to BAUDRATE
      if (dynamixel.setBaudRate(port_num, BAUDRATE))
      {
        Console.WriteLine("Succeed to change the controller baudrate to : {0}", BAUDRATE);
      }
      else
      {
        Console.WriteLine("Failed to change the controller baudrate");
        Console.WriteLine("Press any key to terminate...");
        Console.ReadKey();
        return;
      }

      Thread.Sleep(200);

      // Read Dynamixel baudnum
      dxl_baudnum_read = dynamixel.read1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, ADDR_PRO_BAUDRATE);
      if ((dxl_comm_result = dynamixel.getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
      {
        dynamixel.printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
      }
      else if ((dxl_error = dynamixel.getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
      {
        dynamixel.printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
      }
      else
      {
        Console.WriteLine("[ID: {0}] Dynamixel Baudnum is now : {1}", DXL_ID, dxl_baudnum_read);
      }

      // Close port
      dynamixel.closePort(port_num);

      return;
    }
  }
}

using System;

The functions Console.* for I/O, are in the example code, and it uses System namespace.

using dynamixel_sdk;

All libraries of Dynamixel SDK are wrapped into the dynamixel_sdk namespace.

// Control table address
public const int ADDR_PRO_BAUDRATE  = 8;                // Control table address is different in Dynamixel model

Dynamixel series have their own control tables: Addresses and Byte Length in each items. To control one of the items, its address (and length if necessary) is required. Find your requirements in http://support.robotis.com/.

// Protocol version
public const int PROTOCOL_VERSION   = 2;                // See which protocol version is used in the Dynamixel

Dynamixel uses either or both protocols: Protocol 1.0 and Protocol 2.0. Choose one of the Protocol which is appropriate in the Dynamixel.

// Default setting
public const int DXL_ID             = 1;                // Dynamixel ID: 1
public const int BAUDRATE           = 1000000;
public const string DEVICENAME      = "/dev/ttyUSB0";   // Check which port is being used on your controller
                                                        // ex) "COM1"   Linux: "/dev/ttyUSB0"

public const int FACTORYRST_DEFAULTBAUDRATE = 57600;    // Dynamixel baudrate set by factoryreset
public const int NEW_BAUDNUM        = 3;                // New baudnum to recover Dynamixel baudrate as it was
public const byte OPERATION_MODE    = 0x01;             // 0xFF : reset all values
                                                        // 0x01 : reset all values except ID
                                                        // 0x02 : reset all values except ID and baudrate

Here we set some variables to let you freely change them and use them to run the example code.

As the document previously said in previous chapter, customize Dynamixel control table items, such as DXL_ID number, communication BAUDRATE, and the DEVICENAME, on your own terms of needs. In particular, BAUDRATE and DEVICENAME have systematical dependencies on your controller, so make clear what kind of communication method you will use.

Since the factory reset recovers the Dynamixel control table items to the original state, the baudrate of controller serial port should be set to its changed baudrate(FACTORYRST_DEFAULTBAUDRATE : 57600 bps) as well. After that, controller sets its baudrate to the value (1000000 bps : NEW_BAUDNUM = 1) before factory reset.

In Protocol 2.0, factory reset recovers in three types, depending on reset mode (OPERATION_MODE): 0xFF : reset all values (Especially resets ID to 1, baudrate to 57600) 0x01 : reset all values except ID (Especially resets baudrate to 57600) 0x02 : reset all values except ID and baudrate

public const int COMM_SUCCESS                    = 0;                   // Communication Success result value
public const int COMM_TX_FAIL                    = -1001;               // Communication Tx Failed

Each of the variables above show the meaning of the communication result value.

static void Main(string[] args)
{
  // Initialize PortHandler Structs
  // Set the port path
  // Get methods and members of PortHandlerLinux or PortHandlerWindows
  int port_num = dynamixel.portHandler(DEVICENAME);

  // Initialize PacketHandler Structs
  dynamixel.packetHandler();

  int dxl_comm_result = COMM_TX_FAIL;                  // Communication result

  byte dxl_error = 0;                                  // Dynamixel error
  byte dxl_baudnum_read;                               // Read baudnum

  // Open port
  if (dynamixel.openPort(port_num))
  {
    Console.WriteLine("Succeeded to open the port!");
  }
  else
  {
    Console.WriteLine("Failed to open the port!");
    Console.WriteLine("Press any key to terminate...");
    Console.ReadKey();
    return;
  }

  // Set port baudrate
  if (dynamixel.setBaudRate(port_num, BAUDRATE))
  {
    Console.WriteLine("Succeeded to change the baudrate!");
  }
  else
  {
    Console.WriteLine("Failed to change the baudrate!");
    Console.WriteLine("Press any key to terminate...");
    Console.ReadKey();
    return;
  }


  // Read present baudrate of the controller
  Console.WriteLine("Now the controller baudrate is : {0}", dynamixel.getBaudRate(port_num));

  // Try factoryreset
  Console.WriteLine("[ID: {0}] Try factoryreset : ", DXL_ID);
  dynamixel.factoryReset(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, OPERATION_MODE);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = dynamixel.getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    Console.WriteLine("Aborted");
    dynamixel.printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
    return;
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = dynamixel.getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    dynamixel.printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }

  // Wait for reset
  Console.WriteLine("Wait for reset...");
  Thread.Sleep(2000);

  Console.WriteLine("[ID: {0}] factoryReset Success!", DXL_ID);

  // Set controller baudrate to dxl default baudrate
  if (dynamixel.setBaudRate(port_num, FACTORYRST_DEFAULTBAUDRATE))
  {
    Console.WriteLine("Succeed to change the controller baudrate to : {0}", FACTORYRST_DEFAULTBAUDRATE);
  }
  else
  {
    Console.WriteLine("Failed to change the controller baudrate");
    Console.WriteLine("Press any key to terminate...");
    Console.ReadKey();
    return;
  }

  // Read Dynamixel baudnum
  dxl_baudnum_read = dynamixel.read1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, ADDR_PRO_BAUDRATE);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = dynamixel.getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    dynamixel.printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = dynamixel.getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    dynamixel.printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }
  else
  {
    Console.WriteLine("[ID: {0}] Dynamixel baudnum is now : {1}", DXL_ID, dxl_baudnum_read);
  }

  // Write new baudnum
  dynamixel.write1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, ADDR_PRO_BAUDRATE, NEW_BAUDNUM);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = dynamixel.getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    dynamixel.printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = dynamixel.getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    dynamixel.printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }
  else
  {
    Console.WriteLine("[ID: {0}] Set Dynamixel baudnum to : {1}", DXL_ID, NEW_BAUDNUM);
  }

  // Set port baudrate to BAUDRATE
  if (dynamixel.setBaudRate(port_num, BAUDRATE))
  {
    Console.WriteLine("Succeed to change the controller baudrate to : {0}", BAUDRATE);
  }
  else
  {
    Console.WriteLine("Failed to change the controller baudrate");
    Console.WriteLine("Press any key to terminate...");
    Console.ReadKey();
    return;
  }

  Thread.Sleep(200);

  // Read Dynamixel baudnum
  dxl_baudnum_read = dynamixel.read1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, ADDR_PRO_BAUDRATE);
  if ((dxl_comm_result = dynamixel.getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
  {
    dynamixel.printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  }
  else if ((dxl_error = dynamixel.getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
  {
    dynamixel.printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
  }
  else
  {
    Console.WriteLine("[ID: {0}] Dynamixel Baudnum is now : {1}", DXL_ID, dxl_baudnum_read);
  }

  // Close port
  dynamixel.closePort(port_num);

  return;
}

In Main() function, the codes call actual functions for Dynamixel control.


// Initialize PortHandler Structs
// Set the port path
// Get methods and members of PortHandlerLinux or PortHandlerWindows
int port_num = dynamixel.portHandler(DEVICENAME);

portHandler() function sets port path as DEVICENAME and get port_num, and prepares an appropriate functions for port control in controller OS automatically. port_num would be used in many functions in the body of the code to specify the port for use.

// Initialize PacketHandler Structs
dynamixel.packetHandler();

packetHandler() function initializes parameters used for packet construction and packet storing.

int dxl_comm_result = COMM_TX_FAIL;                  // Communication result

byte dxl_error = 0;                                  // Dynamixel error
byte dxl_baudnum_read;                               // Read baudnum

dxl_comm_result indicates which error has been occurred during packet communication.

dxl_error shows the internal error in Dynamixel.

dxl_baudnum_read keeps Dynamixel baudrate.

// Open port
if (dynamixel.openPort(port_num))
{
  Console.WriteLine("Succeeded to open the port!");
}
else
{
  Console.WriteLine("Failed to open the port!");
  Console.WriteLine("Press any key to terminate...");
  Console.ReadKey();
  return;
}

First, controller opens #port_num port to do serial communication with the Dynamixel. If it fails to open the port, the example will be terminated.

// Set port baudrate
if (dynamixel.setBaudRate(port_num, BAUDRATE))
{
  Console.WriteLine("Succeeded to change the baudrate!");
}
else
{
  Console.WriteLine("Failed to change the baudrate!");
  Console.WriteLine("Press any key to terminate...");
  Console.ReadKey();
  return;
}

Secondly, the controller sets the communication BAUDRATE at #port_num port opened previously.

// Read present baudrate of the controller
Console.WriteLine("Now the controller baudrate is : {0}", dynamixel.getBaudRate(port_num));

getBaudRate() function shows which baudrate is used in #port_num port of the controller.

dynamixel.factoryReset(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, OPERATION_MODE);
if ((dxl_comm_result = dynamixel.getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
{
  Console.WriteLine("Aborted");
  dynamixel.printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
  return;
}
else if ((dxl_error = dynamixel.getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
{
  dynamixel.printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
}

factoryReset() function orders to the #DXL_ID Dynamixel through #port_num port, executing it to be reset as OPERATION_MODE format. The function checks Tx/Rx result and receives Hardware error. getLastTxRxResult() function and getLastRxPacketError() function get either, and then printTxRxResult() function and printRxPacketError() function show results on the console window if any communication error or Hardware error has been occurred.

// Wait for reset
Console.WriteLine("Wait for reset...");
Thread.Sleep(2000);

Factory reset takes few seconds.

// Set controller baudrate to dxl default baudrate
if (dynamixel.setBaudRate(port_num, FACTORYRST_DEFAULTBAUDRATE))
{
  Console.WriteLine("Succeed to change the controller baudrate to : {0}", FACTORYRST_DEFAULTBAUDRATE);
}
else
{
  Console.WriteLine("Failed to change the controller baudrate");
  Console.WriteLine("Press any key to terminate...");
  Console.ReadKey();
  return;
}

Controller should change its baudrate itself to do the communication with initialized Dynamixel.

// Read Dynamixel baudnum
dxl_baudnum_read = dynamixel.read1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, ADDR_PRO_BAUDRATE);
if ((dxl_comm_result = dynamixel.getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
{
  dynamixel.printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
}
else if ((dxl_error = dynamixel.getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
{
  dynamixel.printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
}
else
{
  Console.WriteLine("[ID: {0}] Dynamixel baudnum is now : {1}", DXL_ID, dxl_baudnum_read);
}

This shows that reconnection between controller and Dynamixel is happened by adjusting the baudrate.

// Write new baudnum
dynamixel.write1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, ADDR_PRO_BAUDRATE, NEW_BAUDNUM);
if ((dxl_comm_result = dynamixel.getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
{
  dynamixel.printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
}
else if ((dxl_error = dynamixel.getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
{
  dynamixel.printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
}
else
{
  Console.WriteLine("[ID: {0}] Set Dynamixel baudnum to : {1}", DXL_ID, NEW_BAUDNUM);
}

To make the Dynamixel into previous condition, write1ByteTxRx() function orders to the #DXL_ID Dynamixel in PROTOCOL_VERSION communication protocol through #port_num port, writing 1 byte of TORQUE_ENABLE value to ADDR_PRO_TORQUE_ENABLE address. The function checks Tx/Rx result and receives Hardware error. getLastTxRxResult() function and getLastRxPacketError() function get either, and then printTxRxResult() function and printRxPacketError() function show results on the console window if any communication error or Hardware error has been occurred.

// Set port baudrate to BAUDRATE
if (dynamixel.setBaudRate(port_num, BAUDRATE))
{
  Console.WriteLine("Succeed to change the controller baudrate to : {0}", BAUDRATE);
}
else
{
  Console.WriteLine("Failed to change the controller baudrate");
  Console.WriteLine("Press any key to terminate...");
  Console.ReadKey();
  return;
}

Thread.Sleep(200);

// Read Dynamixel baudnum
dxl_baudnum_read = dynamixel.read1ByteTxRx(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION, DXL_ID, ADDR_PRO_BAUDRATE);
if ((dxl_comm_result = dynamixel.getLastTxRxResult(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != COMM_SUCCESS)
{
  dynamixel.printTxRxResult(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_comm_result);
}
else if ((dxl_error = dynamixel.getLastRxPacketError(port_num, PROTOCOL_VERSION)) != 0)
{
  dynamixel.printRxPacketError(PROTOCOL_VERSION, dxl_error);
}
else
{
  Console.WriteLine("[ID: {0}] Dynamixel Baudnum is now : {1}", DXL_ID, dxl_baudnum_read);
}

These changes controller baudrate and verify that the Dynamixel has been successfully set into previous state.

// Close port
dynamixel.closePort(port_num);

return;

Finally, port becomes disposed.